Homeworks academic service


2 what is the relationship between arousal and behavior does this relationship impact performance an

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Aggress Behav See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient.

  1. Method Participants A total of 85 male students from an introductory psychology class participated in this experiment for course credit.
  2. Arousal was manipulated using a Precor 714 standard stairclimber. According to Anderson and Bushman 2002 , arousal can influence aggression in three ways.
  3. Participants in the aggression-inhibiting condition were exposed to soothing Chinese flute music, a poster of a placid beach scene, computer wallpaper of puppies, and a mouse pad featuring a Monet nature painting. Four participants, distributed across three of the four experimental conditions, provided responses that were more than two standard deviations above the mean and, at the minimum, nearly an entire standard deviation above the next highest score on the primary outcome measure and were thus dropped from the analysis, leaving a final sample size of 81.

In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal.

  • For example, in one study restrained eaters i;
  • The participant was given directions on how to use the stairclimber and maintain the desired HR for 2 min, according to the assigned arousal condition;
  • Arousal was manipulated using a Precor 714 standard stairclimber.

Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed. Malcolm Gladwell 2005, p. According to Anderson and Bushman 2002arousal can influence aggression in three ways. First, classic research linking arousal to aggression suggests that arousal can amplify aggressive responses. Second, in a process known as excitation transfer Zillmann, 1988arousal produced by non-aggressive sources, such as exercise, can be misattributed to sources of provocation, inviting angry retaliation.

Research in this area has pointed to the cognitively debilitating nature of arousal as a cause of aggression. Of course, these two accounts are not inconsistent with one another, as both may draw on the fact that arousal can limit cognitive-attentional resources, a finding that has been repeatedly documented in both classic and contemporary research R. At any rate, such findings do not address the relationship, explored in the present study, between brief inductions of high levels of arousal and subsequent aggressive responses.

Although there is now ample evidence that various forms of arousal can enhance aggression e. Specifically, we propose that arousal can limit attentional focus to highly salient situational cues, resulting in behavior that is under the near-exclusive influence of those cues.

To the extent that those salient cues are inhibitory in nature, arousal may be associated with enhanced inhibition. For example, in one study restrained eaters i.

  • Four participants, distributed across three of the four experimental conditions, provided responses that were more than two standard deviations above the mean and, at the minimum, nearly an entire standard deviation above the next highest score on the primary outcome measure and were thus dropped from the analysis, leaving a final sample size of 81;
  • Malcolm Gladwell 2005, p;
  • The paper was published without statistical analyses statistics had not yet been conceived and with sample sizes as small as 2 mice per group an unacceptably low level of power by modern standards;
  • This study, an analysis of the influence of task difficulty and stress on discrimination learning in the dancing mouse, stands apart from all others;
  • Participants were exposed to four different stimuli designed to serve as highly salient aggression-promoting or aggression-inhibiting cues;
  • Whoever was slower would receive a blast of noise of intensity and duration chosen by the winner at the beginning of that trial.

Participants in the high cognitive load condition consumed more food than did those in the low cognitive load condition.

In one study, for example, intoxicated bar patrons exhibited stronger intentions to engage in risky sexual behavior than did sober patrons, a pattern that reversed when a strong inhibiting cue i. Like cognitive load and alcohol intoxication, high levels of arousal have been shown to create a state of myopia, focusing attention onto the most central cues in a situation, at the expense of more peripheral cues Easterbrook, 1959.

According, we sought to investigate whether arousal could be associated with either excessively inhibited or disinhibited aggressive behavior, depending on the presence of relevant environmental cues.

In particular, we examined the effect of short-term increases in markers of sympathetic activation SAnamely heart-rate and blood-pressure, on aggressive responses. In sum, the present investigation represented the first attempt to show that elevated arousal could be associated with both increased and decreased levels of aggression in the same situation, depending on relevant salient cues see Berkowitz, 1993.

We hypothesized that in a situation in which cues signaling promoting pressures to aggress are more salient than cues indicating pressures to refrain from aggressing, exercise-induced arousal would serve to promote aggressive behavior.

By contrast, in a situation in which cues to refrain from aggressing are more salient than cues to aggress, arousal was hypothesized to result in relatively inhibited aggressive behavior. Participants were further led to believe that they were actually aggressing against the confederate. At the same time, participants were randomly assigned to both experience low versus high levels of physiological arousal and be exposed to salient cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression.

Method Participants A total of 85 male students from an introductory psychology class participated in this experiment for course credit.

Four participants, distributed across three of the four experimental conditions, provided responses that were more than two standard deviations above the mean and, at the minimum, nearly an entire standard deviation above the next highest score on the primary outcome measure and were thus dropped from the analysis, leaving a final sample size of 81.

Arousal was manipulated using a Precor 714 standard stairclimber.

  • By contrast, in a situation in which cues to refrain from aggressing are more salient than cues to aggress, arousal was hypothesized to result in relatively inhibited aggressive behavior;
  • Participants were exposed to four different stimuli designed to serve as highly salient aggression-promoting or aggression-inhibiting cues;
  • Whoever was slower would receive a blast of noise of intensity and duration chosen by the winner at the beginning of that trial;
  • We hypothesized that in a situation in which cues signaling promoting pressures to aggress are more salient than cues indicating pressures to refrain from aggressing, exercise-induced arousal would serve to promote aggressive behavior;
  • We hypothesized that in a situation in which cues signaling promoting pressures to aggress are more salient than cues indicating pressures to refrain from aggressing, exercise-induced arousal would serve to promote aggressive behavior;
  • We hypothesized that in a situation in which cues signaling promoting pressures to aggress are more salient than cues indicating pressures to refrain from aggressing, exercise-induced arousal would serve to promote aggressive behavior.

All participants were asked to step on the stair climber until they elevated their HR to the level determined by their experimental condition, and then to maintain this HR for 2 min. Participants were exposed to four different stimuli designed to serve as highly salient aggression-promoting or aggression-inhibiting cues.

REFERENCES

Participants in the aggression-inhibiting condition were exposed to soothing Chinese flute music, a poster of a placid beach scene, computer wallpaper of puppies, and a mouse pad featuring a Monet nature painting. After making the participant wait for several minutes, the confederate arrived, at which point baseline levels of arousal were assessed. In addition, the participant completed a questionnaire that probed for any health condition that would prevent him from engaging in exercise none was reported and asked him to indicate how many times per week he exercised in a manner that increased his heart rate for more than 10 minutes.

No condition differences emerged on this latter variable, and it receives no further discussion. The object was to press a button as quickly as possible on each trial of the game. Whoever was slower would receive a blast of noise of intensity and duration chosen by the winner at the beginning of that trial. Intensity was adjusted by the participant using a sliding scale on the computer screen that ranged from 0 to 10 and corresponded to noise levels ranging from 0 to approximately 110 decibels, whereas duration, indicated by the length of time the computer mouse was depressed, was unbounded.

The confederate was then escorted into an adjacent room for a series of practice trials. In actuality, all participants played against the computer, which was programmed to allow them to win one trial and lose the other three practice trials.

Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression

The participant was given directions on how to use the stairclimber and maintain the desired HR for 2 min, according to the assigned arousal condition. Each item was rated on a 9-point scale ranging from very slightly or not at all 1 to extremely 9. As with the practice trials, the participant actually played against the computer during the reaction-time game, with the participant winning half the trials.

Finally, participants were probed for suspicion, debriefed, and thanked for their participation.

Results Manipulation Checks Analysis of our cardiovascular indicators confirmed that we had successfully manipulated arousal. Table 1 Mean increase in physiological measures from baseline at Time 1 and Time 2 Condition.