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A biography and life work of louis riel a canadian politician

It led to fierce outbreaks of racism in Quebec and Ontario and marked the beginning of the Canadian nationalist movement.

  • The sentence of Louis Riel was carried out on November 16, 1885, when he was hanged for treason;
  • He also saw the benefit of using the new position of influence to pursue his own land claims in Manitoba;
  • He had been summoned from Rome, and as soon as he docked at Portland, Maine, in early February, he had a request from Cartier to come to Ottawa for discussions;
  • He returned to Montreal and in due course made his way to Plattsburg, N;
  • The Hudson's Bay Company planned to transfer Rupert's Land the name then given to the lands first granted to the company in 1670 by the king to Canada, and no one seemed particularly interested in how the Metis felt about the transfer;
  • It is also possible that his rash decision to execute Scott drastically altered the history of his people.

Riel's reputation was maligned as a traitor for more than one hundred years. It was not until 1992 that Canada acknowledged him as the founder of Manitoba province. Today he is considered more a folk hero. Whether seen as a Father of Confederation or a traitor, he remains one of the most complex, controversial, and tragic figures in the history of Canada. The Riels were noted for their devout Catholicism and strong family ties.

Descriptions of him at the time indicate that he was a fine scholar of languages, science, and philosophybut that he exhibited a frequent and unpredictable moodiness.

For a short time following, he continued his studies as a day student in the convent of the Grey Nuns. He remained in Montreal over a year, living at the home of his aunt, Lucie Riel. Impoverished by the death of his father, Riel took employment as a law clerk in the Montreal office of Rodolphe Laflamme. During this time he was involved romantically with a young woman named Marie-Julie Guernon. Compounding this disappointment, Riel found legal work unpleasant, and by early 1866 he had resolved to leave Quebec.

But upon his return, Riel found that religiousnationalistic, and racial tensions were exacerbated by an influx of Anglophone Protestant settlers from Ontario.

The political situation was also uncertain, as ongoing negotiations for the transfer of Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company to Canada had not addressed the political terms of transfer. McDougall's party was turned back near the U. McDougall attempted to assert his authority by authorizing Dennis to raise a contingent of armed men, but the white settlers largely ignored this call to arms. Schultz, however, attracted approximately 50 recruits and fortified his house and store.

Riel ordered Schultz's home surrounded, and the outnumbered Canadians soon surrendered and were imprisoned in Upper Fort Garry. Smith assured large audiences of the Government's goodwill in meetings on January 19 and 20, leading Riel to propose the formation of a new convention split evenly between French and English settlers to consider Smith's instructions.

On February 7, a new list of rights was presented to the Ottawa delegation, and Smith and Riel agreed to send representatives to Ottawa to engage in direct negotiations on that basis. Canadian resistance and the execution of Scott Despite the apparent progress on the political front, the Canadian party continued to plot against the provisional government. However, they suffered a setback on February 17, when 48 men, including Boulton and Thomas Scott, were apprehended near Fort Garry.

After Scott repeatedly quarreled with his guards, they insisted that he be tried for insubordination. At his trial, he was found guilty of defying the authority of the provisional government and was sentenced to death. Riel was repeatedly entreated to commute the sentence, but Donald Smith reported that Riel responded to his pleas by saying: Creation of Manitoba and the Wolseley expedition The delegates representing the provisional government departed for Ottawa in March.

An agreement enshrining the demands in the list of rights was quickly reached, and this formed the basis for the Manitoba Act [7] of May 12, 1870, which formally admitted Manitoba into the Canadian confederation. However, the negotiators were unable to secure a general amnesty for the provisional government. As a means of exercising Canadian authority in the settlement and dissuading American expansionistsa Canadian military expedition under Colonel Garnet Wolseley was dispatched to the Red River.

Although the government described it as an "errand of peace", Riel learned that Canadian militia elements in the expedition meant to lynch him, and he fled as the expedition approached the Red River.

The arrival of the expedition on August 20 marked the effective end of the Red River Rebellion. Intervening years Amnesty question It was not until September 2, 1870 that the new lieutenant-governor Adams George Archibald arrived and set about the establishment of civil government. In the absence of an amnesty, and with the Canadian militia beating and intimidating his sympathizers, Riel fled to the safety of the St. Joseph's mission across the border in the Dakota Territory. However the results of the first provincial election in December 1870 were promising for Riel, as many of a biography and life work of louis riel a canadian politician supporters came to power.

Nevertheless, stress and financial troubles precipitated a serious illness that prevented his return to Manitoba until May 1871. Louis Riel circa 1875 The settlement now faced another threat, this time from cross-border Fenian raids coordinated by his former associate William Bernard O'Donoghue.

While the threat proved overstated, Archibald proclaimed a general call to arms on October 4th. Companies of armed horsemen were raised, including one led by Riel. When Archibald reviewed the troops in St.

Louis Riel

Boniface, he made the significant gesture of publicly shaking Riel's hand, signaling that a rapprochement had been effected. But this was not to be—when this news reached OntarioMair and members of the Canada First movement whipped up a significant resurgence of anti-Riel and anti-Archibald sentiment. With Federal elections coming in 1872, Macdonald could ill afford further rift in Quebec-Ontario relations. Paul Minnesotawhere he arrived on March 2, 1872. However, by late June Riel was back in Manitoba and was soon convinced to run as a member of parliament for the electoral district of Provencher.

However, following the early September defeat of Cartier in his home riding in Quebec, Riel stood aside so that Cartier—on record as being in favor of amnesty for Riel—might secure a seat. Cartier won by acclamation, but Riel's hopes for a swift resolution to the amnesty question were dashed following Cartier's death on May 20, 1873.

In the ensuing by-election in October 1873, Riel ran unopposed as an Independent, although he had once again fled in response to a warrant having been issued for his arrest in September. Liberal leader Alexander Mackenzie became the interim Prime Minister of Canadaand a general election was held in February 1874. Although the Liberals under Mackenzie formed the new government, Riel easily retained his seat. Formally, Riel had to sign a register book at least once upon being elected, and he did so under disguise in late January.

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He was nevertheless stricken from the rolls following a motion supported by Schultz, who had become the member for the electoral district of Lisgar.

Undeterred, Riel prevailed once again in the resulting by-election of October 1874, and although once again expelled, his symbolic point had been made and public opinion in Quebec was strongly tipped in his favor. This presented a severe political difficulty for Mackenzie, who was hopelessly caught between the demands of Quebec and Ontario.

  • Although re-elected in a constituency by-election in Provencher in September 1874, Riel delayed in taking his seat and was later expelled from the House;
  • On his way back in 1868, Riel stayed for several months in St.

This opened the door for Mackenzie to secure from parliament an amnesty for Riel, on that the condition that he remain in exile for five years. During his time of exile, Riel was primarily concerned with religious rather than political matters. During this period his mental state deteriorated, and following a violent outburst he was taken to Montrealwhere he was put under the care of his uncle, John Lee, for a few months.

But after Riel disrupted a religious service, Lee arranged to have him committed in an asylum in Longue-Pointe on March 6, 1876 under the assumed name "Louis R. He began calling himself Louis "David" Riel, prophet of the new world, and he would pray standing for hours, having servants help him to hold his arms in the shape of a cross.

Eventually, Riel was considered "recovered" and was released from the asylum on January 23, 1878 with an admonition to lead a quiet life. Paul, and briefly visited his friends and family. Traveling to the Montana Territory, he became a trader and interpreter in the area surrounding Fort Benton. They would go on to have three children: Riel soon became involved in the politics of Montanaand in 1882, actively campaigned on behalf of the Republican Party.

He brought a suit against a Democrat for rigging a vote, but was then himself accused of fraudulently inducing British subjects to take part in the election. In response, Riel applied for United States citizenship and was naturalized on March 16, 1883. Peter's Jesuit mission in the Sun River district of Montana. Laurent de Grandin, Saskatchewan. The rapid collapse of the buffalo herd was causing near starvation among the Plains Cree and Blackfoot First Nations. This was exacerbated by a reduction in government assistance in 1883, and by a general failure of Ottawa to live up to its treaty obligations.

Moreover, settlers from Europe and the eastern provinces were also moving into the Saskatchewan territories, and they too had complaints related to the administration of the territories. It was here resolved to send a delegation to ask Riel's assistance in presenting their grievances to the Canadian government. He also saw the benefit of using the new position of influence a biography and life work of louis riel a canadian politician pursue his own land claims in Manitoba.

The party departed June 4th, and arrived at Batoche on July 5th. During June 1884, the Plains Cree leaders Big Bear and Poundmaker were independently formulating their complaints, and subsequently held meetings with Riel. However, the Indians' grievances were quite different from those of the settlers, and nothing was then resolved. In the interim, Riel's support began to waver. Also, in response to bribes by territorial lieutenant-governor and Indian commissioner Edgar Dewdney, local English language newspapers adopted an editorial stance critical of Riel.

Nevertheless, the work continued, and on December 16 Riel forwarded the committee's petition to the government, along with the suggestion that delegates be sent to Ottawa to engage in direct negotiation.

Receipt of the petition was acknowledged by Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, Macdonald's Secretary of State, although Macdonald himself would later deny having ever seen it. During this time his relationship with the Catholic Church further deteriorated, as he began to speak out publicly with what the church hierarchy considered an increasingly heretical doctrine.

On February 11, 1885, a response to the petition was received.

William McDougall

The government proposed to take a census of the North-West Territories, and to form a commission to investigate grievances. But Riel became increasingly supportive of this course of action. Although only 100 men had been sent, a rumor began to circulate that 500 heavily armed troops were advancing on the territory.

The Provisional Government of Saskatchewan was declared at Batoche on March 19, with Riel as the political and spiritual leader and with Dumont assuming responsibility for military affairs.

Riel formed a council called the Exovedate [12] meaning "those who have left the flock"and sent representatives to court Poundmaker and Big Bear. The situation was becoming critical, and on March 23 Dewdney sent a telegraph to Macdonald indicating that military intervention might be necessary. In the ensuing Battle of Duck Lake, the police were routed, and the Indians also rose up once the news became known. The die was cast for a violent outcome, and the North-West Rebellion was begun in earnest.

Louis Riel imprisoned in Middleton's camp at Batoche, May 16, 1885 Riel had counted on the Canadian government being unable to effectively respond to another uprising in the distant North-West Territories, thereby forcing them to accept political negotiation. This was essentially the same strategy that had worked to such great effect during the 1870 rebellion.

But in that instance, the first troops did not arrive until three months after Riel seized control. However, Riel had completely overlooked the significance of the nascent Canadian Pacific Railway.

Despite major gaps in railway construction, the first Canadian regular and militia units, under the command of Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton, arrived in Duck Lake less than two weeks after Riel had made his demands. Knowing that he could not defeat the Canadians in direct confrontation, Dumont had hoped to force the Canadians to negotiate by engaging in a long-drawn out campaign of guerrilla warfare ; Dumont realized a modest success along these lines at the Battle of Fish Creek on April 24, 1885.

Riel, however, insisted on concentrating forces at Batoche in order to defend his "City of God. Historian Thomas Flanagan states that amendments of the North-West Territories Act which dropped the provision that trials with crimes punishable by death should be tried in Manitobacompelled Prime minister Sir John A.

Macdonald to convene the trial within the North-West Territories.