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A look at the scientific applications of the wave nature of light

Not local time, which was already possible, but a "universal" time that would be the same for all observers on the Earth, Knowing the standard time would allow one to determine one's longitude on the Earth — a handy thing to know when navigating the featureless oceans.

Unfortunately, Io did not turn out to be a good clock. He hypothesized that this variation was due to the time it took for light to travel the lesser or greater distance, and estimated that the time for light to travel the diameter of the Earth's orbit, a distance of two astronomical units, was 22 minutes.

The Nature of Light

The speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant in all reference frames. The speed of light in a medium is always slower the speed of light in a vacuum. The speed of light depends upon the medium through which it travels. The speed of anything with mass is always less than the speed of light in a vacuum.

Wave-Particle Duality

Intensity is the absolute measure of a light wave's power density. Brightness is the relative intensity as perceived by the average human eye. The frequency of a light wave is related to its color. Color is such a complex topic that it has its own section in this book.

Discussion

Monochromatic light is described by only one frequency. Laser light is effectively monochromatic. There are six simple, named colors in English and many other languages each associated with a band of monochromatic light.

In order of increasing frequency they are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Light is sometimes also known as visible light to contrast it from "ultraviolet light" and "infrared light" Other forms of electromagnetic radiation that are not visible to humans are sometimes also known informally as "light" Polychromatic light is described by many different frequencies.

Nearly every light source is polychromatic. White light is polychromatic. A graph of relative intensity vs. Although frequently associated with light, the term can be applied to any wave phenomena. A continuous spectrum is one in which every frequency is present within some range. Blackbody radiators emit a continuous spectrum. A discrete spectrum is one in which only a well defined set of isolated frequencies are present.

A discrete spectrum is a finite collection of monochromatic light waves. The excited electrons in a gas emit a discrete spectrum. The wavelength of a light wave is inversely proportional to its frequency.

Light is often described by it's wavelength in a vacuum. Phase differences between light waves can produce visible interference effects.

Applications of light

There are several sections in this book on interference phenomena and light. Falcon can see a 10 cm. The flicker fusion rate is the frequency with which the "flicker" of an image cannot be distinguished as an individual event. Like the frame of a movie… if you slowed it down, you would see individual frames. Speed it up and you see a constantly moving image. Penguin has a flat cornea that allows for clear vision underwater. Penguins can also see into the ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Currently, many research institutions are searching for ways to extract the huge energy from nuclear reactions derived from making atomic nuclei containing positively charge plasma collide with one another. Applications for optical sensors are steadily expanding and diversifying.
  2. Speed it up and you see a constantly moving image.
  3. The Huygens' principle helped develop the wave theory of light and it was further developed by Fresnel and Kirchhoff.
  4. A discrete spectrum is one in which only a well defined set of isolated frequencies are present. Currently, many research institutions are searching for ways to extract the huge energy from nuclear reactions derived from making atomic nuclei containing positively charge plasma collide with one another.
  5. There are six simple, named colors in English and many other languages each associated with a band of monochromatic light.

Sparrow Retina has 400,000 photoreceptors per square. Reindeer can see ultraviolet wavelengths, which may help them view contrasts in their mostly white environment.