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A response to samuel huntingtons the clash of civilizations and edward saids orientalism

Until what extent is it correct to accept them is the question. This essay is divided in four main parts. First, in order to understand the circumstances within which Huntington developed his thesis, there is a brief historical context.

The Debate, a Foreign Relations publication. He also held a personal chair in Sociology at La Trobe University from 1994 to 2003.

The fall of the Berlin wall, in 1989, and the collapse of USSR, in 1991, dictated an absence of war and military conflicts amongst states which, however, did not mean that international peace and security was ensured UN Doc. This new paradigm left a vacuum in terms of a strategic picture of World Affairs. In his thesis, Fukuyama defends the victory of the liberal democracy of the United States after the Cold War era.

By 1996, Huntington had already extended his article into a book4. Assuming that, after the Cold War era, the liberal democracies would not engage each other in war, Huntington hypothesized 3 Francis Fukuyama, the American neoconservative political scientist and political economist, is the author of The End of History and the Last Man, published in 1992 as an attempt to a new paradigm of international politics, based on a historic approach from Plato to Nietzsche.

In 1996 his thesis was expanded to book length and published as The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. The September 11 attacks revealed the new world reality, far from the pacified situation that the fall of the Iron Curtain made everyone believe in Mucznik, 2011. His a response to samuel huntingtons the clash of civilizations and edward saids orientalism approach to independent civilizations was later followed by Arnold Toynbee, a British historian.

Both grew apart from the conception that civilization and culture are always related to classic civilization. As Elias and even Toynbee, he saw 6 Dr. Elwell has a Ph. According to Huntington, civilizations will clash due to several reasons that make their relationship dangerous: Katzenstein, in his book Civilizations in World Politics: In this line of thought, the tendency would be for countries around the world to progress according to the victorious side, the West. Western technological superiority after the end of the Cold War was undeniable, so it was expected for many a cultural coming together of humanity in a Universal Civilization, which would adopt Western values, beliefs, practices and institutions Huntington, 1996, p.

Huntington rejects this train of thought. First of all, according to him the central characteristics of the West, the ones that distinguish it as a different civilization, existed before the Modernization Process Huntington, 1996, p. There is not enough evidence to support the idea that the increasing number of western goods sales will lead to a convergence in attitudes and beliefs Huntington, 1996, p.

  • The authoritarian regime in Saudi Arabia is considered the most backward looking within the Islamic world;
  • Yet, the leaders of so-called progressive West continue to maintain strong business and political relations with it;
  • Elwell has a Ph;
  • Discuss any aspect of Said's work Orientalism,that you find most appealing, and give your own insights on the issue;
  • Katzenstein, in his book Civilizations in World Politics:

Moreover, Huntington states that research says that increasing levels of trade is a disruptive force for international politics instead of easing international tensions Huntington, 1996, p. More and more countries will start to develop their own economic, military and political power in order to compete with the West.

Huntington thesis goes even further by saying that, from all the non-western civilizations, the most dangerous one to the West is the Islamic. He is known best for his book Orientalism. There is, in fact, little evidence that, in the future, civilizations will clash.

Even over the centuries it is not clear that there were differences between civilizations that did lead to the longest and most violent conflicts. In fact, in the recent past, most of the world violent clashes happened within civilizations and not between them Katzenstein, 2010, p. On the other hand, if it is true that the frequency of wars between states is decreasing, one cannot say the same about wars within countries, as it was the case in Yugoslavia, Iraq, or even Sri Lanka.

In fact, a very strong critic to Huntington is related to the flaws of his analytical process. Where is it placed? The major phenomenon in world politics are state units and not supranational aggregations Weeks, 1993, p. Huntington argues against this belief that the more technologically advanced societies are, the more similar to each other they get and become more akin to Western civilization.

  • Do students today have the incentive to learn?
  • By edward w said samuel huntington's article the clash of civilizations affairs, where it immediately attracted a surprising amount of attention and reaction the clash of civilizations will dominate global politics he relies heavily on a 1990 article by the veteran orientalist bernard lewis, whose.

According to him, the major World division after the Cold War would be between the Western civilization and all the other non-western ones.

They would promote their own internal development and cooperate with each other Huntington, 1993a, pp.

Likewise, in Mary Kaldor14 book New and Old Wars, the religion and culture revivals are also seen as renewed interests in the survival of local cultures due to the inaccessibility to the 14 Mary Kaldor is a Professor of Global Governance at the London School of Economics and the Director of its Centre for the Study of Global Governance. The Islamic Civilization Huntington thesis goes even further by saying that, from all the non-western civilizations, the most dangerous one to the West is the Islamic.

The author overstates the cultural factors and leaves politics out when describing the relationship between the United States and Islamic Radicals.

As Jeane Kirkpatrick says, there are in fact more explosive differences within the Muslim world than between Muslim and Judeo-Christian civilizations KirkPatrick, 1993, p. By doing so, he ignores the context specificities, the difference between Islam and Islamism, or between faith and ideology Vermeulen and Govers, 2003, p. Nowadays, more than ever, there is a need to defeat the ignorance by bringing in the intercultural and interreligious dialogue, the most effective instruments to build ties stronger than the differences.

In doing so, it should be possible to find complicities and consequently develop common projects Sampaio, 2010, pp. Conclusion In 1993, in order to provide a new mental map that would interpret the world politics after the end of the Cold War, Samuel Huntington published in the Foreign Affairs Magazine an article named The Clash of Civilizations?

As one can understand by reading this essay, the author was not spared from many negative criticisms.

A response to samuel huntingtons the clash of civilizations and edward saids orientalism

We want to believe it is possible. Remaking a Tarnished Idea, Penguin U. Brill, Chapter 1; 4. Plural and Pluralist Perspectives, New York: Mary Kaldor, 1999, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global EraCambridge: Polity Press, 2nd edition, pp.