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Action behavior classroom in paper research student

Sun and Daniel T.

  • Disciplinary problems in schools impact negatively on the teaching and learning environment as well as on teachers' personal and professional well-being and morale;
  • Findings The dissemination of the findings of the action-research project was directed by McNiff and Whitehead's 2006;
  • Raelene's rules were kept in her journal, and she read through them at the end of each day to see whether she had successfully abided by them;
  • Mestry and Khumalo 2012:

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This study aimed to examine the conceptions of junior secondary school student misbehaviors in classroom, and to identify the most common, disruptive, and unacceptable student problem behaviors from teachers' perspective.

Twelve individual interviews with teachers were conducted. A list of 17 student problem behaviors was generated. Results showed that the most common and disruptive problem behavior was talking out of turn, followed by nonattentiveness, daydreaming, and idleness.

The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn and verbal aggression. The findings action behavior classroom in paper research student that teachers perceived student problem behaviors as those behaviors involving rule-breaking, violating the implicit norms or expectations, being inappropriate in the classroom settings and upsetting teaching and learning, which mainly required intervention from teachers.

Introduction Student misbehaviors such as disruptive talking, chronic avoidance of work, clowning, interfering with teaching activities, harassing classmates, verbal insults, rudeness to teacher, defiance, and hostility [ 1 ], ranging from infrequent to frequent, mild to severe, is a thorny issue in everyday classroom. Teachers usually reported that these disturbing behaviors in the classroom are intolerable [ 2 ] and stress-provoking [ 3 ], and they had to spend a great deal of time and energy to manage the classroom [ 45 ].

Moreover, research findings have shown that school misbehavior not only escalated with time but also lowered academic achievement and increased delinquent behavior [ 67 ]. To lessen these immediate and gradual adverse effects of student misbehaviors, it is of primary importance to identify what exactly are these behaviors inside classroom. In the literature, different terms have been used to describe problematic behaviors of students.

For instance, Stewart et al. However, the cultural relevance of these scales to describe and measure disruptive behavior among primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong Chinese classroom is a concern that should be addressed. These included verbal abuse, forgetfulness, nonattentiveness, gambling, reading other materials, and doing other things.

On top of this, uncooperativeness, emotional disturbance, overactivity and withdrawal were also reported as student classroom behavior problems by Chinese elementary school teachers [ 5 ]. Although these two studies were recent, both were conducted in mainland China.

It is thus argued that the scales developed in these studies as well as the findings may be limited to describing student problem behaviors in mainland China classroom, which is different from the pluralistic classroom in which Confucian and Western teaching and learning approaches are used action behavior classroom in paper research student Hong Kong.

As such, direct employment of an existing scale is hardly sufficient to tap all the classroom problem behaviors exhibited by students.

  1. Thus, for Raelene finding herself in a multicultural school setting, she was intuitively aware that her primary task as a teacher is to centralise learning in her classroom. There is a greater chance that they will distract other students and so the whole class.
  2. These students are quite disruptive.
  3. Learners also learn to deal with their own feelings as well as those of their fellow learners and teachers Mtsweni 2008.
  4. Pursuing values to maintain positive discipline in multicultural schools', South African Journal of Education 30, 13-26. It is our contention that such an affirmative and collaborative approach has the potential to infuse action with hope on two accounts.

With a specific focus on studying the problem behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong classroom, this study attempted to replicate the previous studies in examining the problem behaviors perceived by teachers as the most common and disruptive. In addition, this study further attempted to investigate the most unacceptable problem behaviors in the eyes of teachers and the underlying reasons behind.

The primary goal of this study was to examine classroom problem behaviors among junior secondary school students in Hong Kong based on the views of teachers. Therefore, this study recruited teachers with different years of teaching experiences and training background, in order to get a comprehensive view of the issue. It is a descriptive and exploratory qualitative research study. Academically, the present findings would add to the local literature, as recent research studies on this topic are scanty in Hong Kong [ 89 ].

Even though there were some studies, they were conducted a decade ago [ 412 ] and limited to focusing on the mainland China educational settings [ 518 ]. Practically, it was expected that the findings would have profound importance to counseling and guidance work in the school context. Participants Three schools, each admitting students having low, medium or high academic competencies, were invited to join this study.

In total, twelve teachers 5 males and 7 females participated in this study. Four of them were members of the school counseling team and three were members of the discipline team. The average of their teaching experiences was 9. Their participation was voluntary and written consent from the school principals and the interviewees were obtained prior to data collection.

Issues of anonymity and confidentiality in handling the data were also clearly explained at the beginning of each interview. Instrument A self-constructed semistructured interview guide was used for each individual interview. They were invited to use real-life examples to further illustrate their views. Each interview was conducted by two trained interviewers in Cantonese the mother tongue of both the interviewers and interviewees.

As many questions were covered in the interview guide, only data related to the following action behavior classroom in paper research student were analyzed in this paper. Please list out as many as possible and describe. Data was analyzed by using general qualitative analyses techniques [ 20 ]. First level of coding was conducted by a colleague who has a Bachelor degree of Psychology and teaching experiences.

Further checking and second levels of coding and categorization were conducted by the first author, in which similar codes were grouped to reflect higher-order categories of theme. The coding and categorization were finalized with consensus among the coders and further checked by a colleague with a Bachelor degree of Psychology and professional counseling training.

As the code and categorization were inductively derived from the data, both intra- and interrater reliability on the coding were calculated to ensure the credibility of the findings.

In the reliability test, 20 raw responses were randomly selected for each rater to code without referring to the original codes. The intrarater reliability tests were conducted by the two coders independently; whereas the interrater reliability tests were conducted by two colleagues one has action behavior classroom in paper research student Master degree and several years of teaching experiences and one has a Bachelor degree independently.

The responses were classified into 17 main categories, and 6 of them were further divided into subcategories. Teachers reported that students would do something in private which was unrelated to the lesson, such as reading, drawing, and doing other homework.

Some teachers pointed out that it was a rising phenomenon that students liked to use electronic devices, such as mobile phone for texting people inside or outside classroom, playing electronic games, surfing webpage, or listening to music. In response to this phenomenon, there were regulations in some schools prohibiting students to switch on their mobile phones inside school.

For instance, a teacher mentioned that refusing to follow instructions was a disobedient and disrespectful behavior. They will insist to do what they think…These behaviors are mainly perceived in lower competent classes at the moment.

As remarked by Teacher C04: If the teacher commented on, the student would be enraged and hostile, and then disputed against the teacher.

The Scientific World Journal

Scolding teacher was unusual, unless the student was agitated. At the school level, I think there were less than five cases of scolding teacher in an academic year.

When arguing, students usually had poor attitudes, especially boys. Hence, teachers would scold at them, and the students would become hostile, temper-losing… more seriously, they would knock tables or throw books to express their anger.

But this situation was very rare; say one to two cases a year. Some teachers also regarded failure to submit assignments on time in a habitual manner as one of the problem behaviors, as reflected in the following narrative: You need to chase after them for the homework…I think Form 1 Grade 7 students are more likely to fail to submit their homework.

When other classmates had wrong answers, he would immediately call out and point out their mistakes. These students are quite disruptive. I have to stop the chatting, otherwise I cannot teach and the students who chat will miss the content of the lesson.

If I do nothing, other students will imitate and join the conversation…As the classroom is small, others can still hear even you talk in a low voice. Moreover, action behavior classroom in paper research student are very attentive to the surroundings. As revealed in the interviews, such behavior indicated that students lacked proper attitudes and values in interpersonal relationships as well as in their morality.

The underlying reasons of these behaviors are simple. For instance, chatting in the middle of lesson could take place because they feel bored; or they just pop up some ideas to share with their neighbors. However, if they argue back or disrespect their teachers, it is something related to their attitudes and values.

So I think this is the biggest problem…Normally, they behave offensively against individual teachers, a certain kind of teachers including those who are too gentle or those who are rigid but not convincing. This is something that I cannot accept…It is obvious that he does not hold a point but still insists he is correct.

  • Raelene's rules were kept in her journal, and she read through them at the end of each day to see whether she had successfully abided by them;
  • When she realised that the quantity of homework was not as important as the consistency in working, she scaled down slightly on the amount of homework.

Among these verbal aggressive behaviors, teachers revealed that they could not accept students speaking foul language and teasing others, particularly insult would hurt the bullied.

If they are out of seat, they may act out. There is a greater chance that they will distract other students and so the whole class. I think it is inactive during lesson.

To me, it is misbehavior although it is not obvious. If there are a number of passive students in my class, it is hard for me to teach them.

  • Disciplinary problems in schools impact negatively on the teaching and learning environment as well as on teachers' personal and professional well-being and morale;
  • SGBs have a duty to promote the best interests of schools and provide quality education Republic of South Africa 1996, s;
  • Biblical basics for a reformational worldview, William B;
  • In this regard, they need to focus on personal strategies such as improving their attitude and other ways to improve their own conduct.

No matter how and what I teach, they just do not want to learn. Compared with these inactive students, those who make noise in class are better. Among them, the most common and disruptive misbehavior was talking out of turn, particularly in the form of disruptive conversation.

The most unacceptable problem behavior was disrespecting teachers in terms of disobedience and rudeness, followed by talking out of turn, and verbal aggression.

Teachers would consider these behaviors as intolerable when they disrupt teaching, affect student learning adversely, or suggest the fact that students do not have proper values and attitudes. These findings indicate that teachers are concerned about classroom learning and student development, and they expect that there are respect, obedience, order, and discipline in the classroom. There were some unique findings of this study, although most of the categories of problem behaviors identified are similar to those reported in the previous studies.

In this category, on top of dealing with personal stuff, doing other homework, reading, and drawing that are unrelated to the lesson, this study showed that using electronic devices e.

With particular focus to Hong Kong, mobile phones are popular among adolescents. As these electronic devices are multifunctional and audio-visual stimulating, some students would be tempted to use them for communication and fulfilling personal satisfaction even during lesson. Actually, doing something in private is an off-task behavior in which students are doing something irrelevant to classroom learning.

Others, like nonattentiveness, idleness, and daydreaming were grouped together as a category of problem behaviors in this study because they were mentioned as related to the fact that students were tired, lazy, or lacking learning motivation. Sleeping was a single category, because it was an obvious off-task behavior and would be disruptive if students imitate each others.

This conception is much wider than the narrow definition in Ding et al. It was due to the fact that the noises are disruptive and teachers need to spend time to manage, otherwise, such behaviors would escalate in term action behavior classroom in paper research student frequency and intensity and would be contagious. The lack of sympathy or hostility involved in these aggressive behaviors was mentioned as intolerable as the teachers recognized the hurt involved.

It reflected that caring was valued in the eyes of the teachers when they judged a behavior was problematic or not. Sometimes, these behaviors would also be perceived as offensive to authority. These findings further demonstrated that these values are still strongly held in teacher expectations, and thus behaviors that fail to comply were pinpointed as disrespectful and the students were judged as lacking proper values and attitudes.

The findings suggest that problem behaviors include those breaking explicit rules as well as those infringing implicit norms or expectations. Apart from respect and obedience, order and discipline are essential elements of the Chinese classroom.