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An introduction to the history of eritrea a former colony of the country of ethiopia

Resources Italian Colonization FromItalians started settling along the Eritrean coast. To counter the French expansion in the region, the United Kingdom changed its position of supporting Egyptian rule in Eritrea to supporting the Italian colonisation of Eritrea. InItaly took advantage of the uncertain situation created by the death of Emperor Yohannes IV to occupy the Highlands with the aid of Eritrean auxiliaries.

This occupation was accepted by the new Ethiopian monarch, Menelik II.

  1. In between them were other figures, like Mr.
  2. To counter the French expansion in the region, the United Kingdom changed its position of supporting Egyptian rule in Eritrea to supporting the Italian colonisation of Eritrea. Although the BMA expanded educational opportunities and allowed political activities and freedom of expression, through "divide and rule" tactics, it strove to create division among the people of Eritrea.
  3. In December , the UN finally declared Eritrea an autonomous unit federated to Ethiopia and hence turned Eritrea over to its most brutal and oppressive ruler to date.

On 1 Januarythe Italian king announced the creation of the colony of Eritrea, taking its name from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea, Erythreus. Massawa became the capital of the new colony, before being replaced by Asmara in The seizure by Italians of huge swathes of agricultural fields in the highlands from the indigenous population sparked an anticolonial revolt led by Bhata Hagos, a former commander in the Ethiopian army. In response, the Italians invaded the Tigray region but faced the resistance of Ethiopian troops, who defeated them in the battle of Adwa in In the peace treaty that followed, Emperor Menelik II renounced Ethiopian claims to the Italian colony in exchange for the recognition of Ethiopia as an independent State.

The Italian administration launched its first development projects in Eritrea from the late s. The construction of the Eritrean railway started in and the first line connecting Massawa to Saati, 27 kilometers inland from the coast, was completed in It reached Asmara in In addition, Italians built an infrastructure of ports, roads, telecommunications, factories, administrative centres and police stations that unified the colony under a centralised government.

  1. This unfortunately was used against Eritrean secessionists and Ethiopian guerillas in brutal wars. This was a significant victory for Yohannes, who was also facing a number of other threats on different fronts at the same time - not only the Italians, but the Dervishes and Menelik, an increasingly disloyal general.
  2. The Eritrean parliament is unilaterally dissolved by Ethiopia in and the region is annexed.
  3. Tedla Bairu, advocated for a union with Ethiopia. As part of the "politics of famine", Mengistu began using his power to block delivery of grain to areas he considered hostile to him, most notably Tigray and Eritrea.

Many historians and specialists trace the development of a national consciousness to that time. It therefore remained in an obscurity which kept it from the direct notice of world commercial influences that would have done much to develop its economic possibilities.

Atlas of Eritrea

This remarkable result lifted Eritrea from commercial obscurity, and demands for the colony the attention and interest of world traders, and particularly of those who were interested in Red Sea trade. By the s African slaves in Arabia fell into two categories, namely, those who were sold into slavery in the Hejaz as children by their parents or relations whom they had accompanied on the pilgrimage. The other category consists of slaves taken from Abyssinia, and presumably smuggled through remote and unoccupied portions of Eritrea and French Somaliland to the Red Sea.

The feeling of belonging to one nation was reinforced by the large scale enrolment of Eritreans as askaris soldiers in the Italian colonial army, which participated in the two Italo-Ethiopian wars and as well as in the war against Turkey in Libya At the same time, the Italian administration developed policies intended to limit the development of an Eritrean elite.

Inthe Fascist government expelled Protestant missionaries, the only source of Eritrean education beyond fourth grade, and limited the access of all Eritreans, including those of mixed blood, to schools, jobs and social services in urban areas. Fromthe rise of Benito Mussolini to power in Italy transformed the colony by making it his base for implementing his expansionist ambitions in the Horn of Africa.

Inthousands of Italian workers and soldiers poured into Eritrea in preparation of the second invasion of Ethiopia.

Eritrea became the industrial center of this empire.

  • Menelik obtained the throne in March of when Emperor John fell in battle and the Italians were able to secure a treaty of friendship and alliance;
  • The Eritrean guerrilla forces estimated to number 20, managed to win considerable victories against the occupying Ethiopians;
  • Italy proclaimed possession of the Ethiopian empire in May

At that time, around 60 per cent of working-age male Eritreans found employment in the administration and in the 2, Eritrean factories in Eritrea in ; others were conscripted into the Italian army. Italian colonialism lasted over fifty years. It did not completely change Eritrean society, nor was its influence evenly distributed. However, its lasting impact on the history of Eritrea cannot be denied. Italian colonialism, as was true of all European colonialisms, forcefully established Eritrea's boundaries; and by bringing under one administration all peoples within these boundaries, opened up a new chapter in the history of Eritrea.

  • For the US's unrestricted use of a military base, Selassie was given "aid" i;
  • In , Italy took advantage of the uncertain situation created by the death of Emperor Yohannes IV to occupy the Highlands with the aid of Eritrean auxiliaries;
  • They were able to do this through backing from Britain;
  • In response, the Italians invaded the Tigray region but faced the resistance of Ethiopian troops, who defeated them in the battle of Adwa in
  • Resources Italian Colonization From , Italians started settling along the Eritrean coast.

Using Italian skills, but mainly relying on Eritrean human and material resources, Italian colonialism built cities and ports, highways and railroads, factories and modem farms. Further, it created a condition where Eritrean citizens from all corners of the country were introduced to each other and gained common experiences.

The extent of colonial influence may have varied from place to place some might not have been touchedbut the ever expanding interaction among Eritreans, combined with their reaction to increasing Italian oppression and racism, sowed the seeds of Eritrean national consciousness.