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An introduction to the study of psychology

Psychodynamic Psychology Current Outlooks in Psychology[ edit ] Attempts to explain all behavior by reference to only one systematic position have been abondened.

The modern trend is to limit areas of study to particular aspects of behavior. These areas are called specialties and can be grouped into several broad approaches to the study of behavior. Many psychologists take an eclectic position.

  • With the increasing involvement of other disciplines such as philosophy, computer science and neuroscience in the quest to understand the mind, the umbrella discipline of cognitive science has been created as a means of focusing such efforts in a constructive way;
  • Typically people seeking the help of a counselor are not classified as abnormal or mentally ill;
  • The root of the word psychology psyche is very roughly equivalent to "soul" in Greek, and ology equivalent to "study".

Emphasizes unconscious drives and the resolution of conflicts. Emphases the acquisition and alteration of observable responses.

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Achieve or maximize human potential, also called self-actualization. Based on physiological explanations of behavior. Is based on genes, evolution and natural selection. Some more recent perspectives are: This examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language.

  1. A school psychologist assess, counsel or guide students who have emotional or academic problems. It should be noted that Herbert Simon and Allen Newell identified the 'thinking-aloud' protocol, in which investigators view a subject engaged in introspection, and who speaks his thoughts aloud, thus allowing study of his introspection.
  2. Early modern era[ edit ] In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt 1832-1920 , known as "the father of psychology", founded a laboratory for the study of psychology at Leipzig University in Germany.
  3. Noam Chomsky's review of Skinner's book Verbal Behavior that aimed to explain language acquisition in a behaviorist framework is considered one of the major factors in the ending of behaviorism's reign.
  4. This covers a broad range of research domains, examining questions about the workings of memory, attention, perception, knowledge representation, reasoning, creativity and problem solving. Completing this unit should take you approximately 3 hours.
  5. Completing this unit should take you approximately 10 hours. It is essential that observations be made by trained observers under carefully specified conditions for the purpose of answering a well-defined question.

Compares idfferent ethnic or cultural groups. Over half of all psychologists work in this field. Clinical psychologists are more likely to treat or conduct research into the causes of abnormal behaviors, while counseling psychologists more often work with mild social or emotional problems.

Typically people seeking the help of a counselor are not classified as abnormal or mentally ill.

Introduction to psychology/Lecture one: Definition and History

Educational and School Psychology: Educational psychologists are concerned with the use of psycholgy to increase the effectiveness of the learning esperience, including facilities, curricula, teaching techniques, and student problems.

A school psychologist assess, counsel or guide students who have emotional or academic problems. Industrial and organizational psychology applies psychological knowledge and methods to aid workers and organizations. Consumer behaviour is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy.

  • This is no longer the case; nowadays, scientists insist that the psychological mind and physiological body are fully integrated with one another;
  • The American philosopher William James published his seminal book, Principles of Psychology, in 1890, laying the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would focus on for years to come;
  • Early modern era[ edit ] In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt 1832-1920 , known as "the father of psychology", founded a laboratory for the study of psychology at Leipzig University in Germany;
  • Completing this unit should take you approximately 8 hours.

See link Forensic Psychology: Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. Areas of study include pollution effects, recycling efforts, and the study of stress generated by different physical settings. Scientific Investigations in Psychology[ edit ] Certian areas in psychology use scientific investigations primarily to explore fundamental questions of behavior or cognition.

PSYCH101: Introduction to Psychology

The experimental psychologists may study processes such as sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and memory, as well as the neurological or biological bases of these processes. Experimental studies are usually cunducted using the special approaches of the scientific method. Both human and animal subjects have been used in the wide variety of problems that have been investigated.

Many studies look at the principles of behavior, without regard to practical application. Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language.

  • It allowed the study of new subjects including children and animals;
  • The mid-20th century saw a rejection of Freud's theories among many psychologists as being too unscientific, as well as a reaction against Edward Titchener's abstract approach to the mind.

Developmental psychology, also known as Human Development, is the scientific study of progressive psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age.

Originally concerned with infants and children, and later other periods of great change such as adolescence and aging, it now encompasses the entire life span. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes, problem solving abilities, conceptual understanding, acquisition of language, moral understanding, and identity formation.

Introduction to Psychology/Introduction

Social psychology is the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. According to Gordon Allport's classic definition, social psychology is an attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals is influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

By imagined or implied presence, Allport suggests that the effects of social influence are felt even when there are no other people about.