Homeworks academic service


An understanding of knowledge and the three different ways of knowing

The Ways of Knowing are w hat they sound like, the methods through which knowledge becomes apparen t to us. Language Language is defined as a system of signs with meanings.

  • We are also able to make predictions from present to future circumstances;
  • One of the big debates here surrounds the idea of empiricisim;
  • Hopefully you found some of that interesting, although it can be a lot to pick up all at once;
  • Therefore all windows are made of glass Notice that inductive reasoning can involve probability;
  • We are also able to make predictions from present to future circumstances;
  • All men have eight legs Question:

These signs include, but are not limited to: Language is everywhere, some aspects of it may even be universal. As well as being everywhere, language is crucial to our survival and success.

However, despite its omnipresence and importance, language is full of potential problems.

  1. Comparing the Work of Scientists and Detectives. Although there are other ways of knowing that may be important in our personal and cultural lives, they rely on opinion, belief and other factors rather than on evidence and testing.
  2. You should know something about logical induction. The physical world is understandable.
  3. Microsoft Clip Art Scientists come from all walks of life and all parts of the globe. This would mean that emotions come from our social environment.
  4. You could argue that using only a specific language, limits our ability to think!
  5. A scientist conducts this research to answer a question that she or he has about the natural world.

We all know how a joke in one language might not work in another! Language is really imporatant for communicating knowledge, despite its flaws. As ToK students, we should think about how language communicates knowledge, and some of the problems that might creep up when we try to pass on knowledge through signs as symbols.

This is the idea that language determines the way we think. The idea is that because a specific community speak in a certain way, the way they think is structured accordingly.

You could argue that using only a specific language, limits our ability to think! Others argue that the way we see things and the way we think about them are not limited to our culture, but are universal.

  • As ToK students, we should think about how language communicates knowledge, and some of the problems that might creep up when we try to pass on knowledge through signs as symbols;
  • This would mean that emotions come from our social environment;
  • These signs include, but are not limited to;
  • The issue of the best source of "truth" is a major controversy in our society today;
  • Deciding how perceptions and beliefs influence each other is a faschinating topic for essays and presentations;
  • To study the natural world, scientists use methods that are empirical, which means that they are grounded in observations and experimentation and are not based on opinions or feelings.

This is an ongoing debate and a really interesting one to consider using in your presentation or essays. Sense Perception This Way of Knowing relates to the way a person uses and understands their senses. Traditionally this people have thought that we only have five senses: However, as time has passed more and more senses have been suggested. Other senses that it has been claimed that people have include the sense of heat, sense of pain, of movement, of balance and of hunger and thirst, even a sense of where our body parts are in space has been suggested.

Some of these might seem a little unusual, but try this: But only the sense of proprioception where your body is in space could have allowed you to do this.

The Nature of Science

One of the big debates here surrounds the idea of empiricisim. This term, which you might have heard of, refers to the theory that all knowledge comes from the senses.

  • Other senses that it has been claimed that people have include the sense of heat, sense of pain, of movement, of balance and of hunger and thirst, even a sense of where our body parts are in space has been suggested;
  • Although there are other ways of knowing that may be important in our personal and cultural lives, they rely on opinion, belief and other factors rather than on evidence and testing;
  • Scientists, like detectives, work to reveal and explain the unknown, and their inquiry methods share some similarities;
  • However, it is when we develop theories add explanations to facts, concepts, and principles and laws empirically validate principles and theories that we accomplish the highest goal of science--to control the variables we are studying;
  • The different types of scientific studies relate rather well to this classification of knowledge:

This is a historical view. Now, it is commonly believed that our expectations help shape our sense experiences. Deciding how perceptions and beliefs influence each other is a faschinating topic for essays and presentations. Emotion There are two important views of emotion that tend to come up in ToK.

One is called the naturalistic view of emotion. This view tells us that emotion is a result of our physical bodies, with physical causes and effects.

Charles Darwin was one supporter of this view. One interesting implication of the naturalistic view is that emotions are seen as universal and experienced across cultures. The opposite view to this is that of social constructionists. These guys argue that emotions are socially constructed. This would mean that emotions come from our social environment. The social constructionists might point at to an emotion like shame and say that, shame is an emotion based on social ideas of what is right and what is wrong.

One question you might consider is whether emotion is a help or a hindrance when it comes to gaining knowledge.

You could argue that emotion is a problem when seeking knowledge. For example, you might argue that emotion hinders rational thought and thus distorts reality. However, someone might disagree with you. Somebody could tell you, for example, that without emotions it is difficult to make sense of cultural and social experiences.

People with autism often struggle to understand social situations and to know what it is other people feel. What does this say about the universality of emotions? Reason Most people would tell you that they are reasonable, but definitions of reason vary greatly amongst the general population.

Do you know what reason means?

Theory of Knowledge IB Guide | Part 4

There are three things you should know about to get started in understanding reason: First is the ability to use logical deduction This allows us to go from starting ideas premises to reach valid conclusions.

Rex is a dog. Does Rex have fur? Yes Rex has fur. Earlier it was noted that deduction leads to valid conclusions. This does not mean that the conclusions are true. What it means is that if the premises are true then the conclusions will be true. Peter is a man Premises 2: All men have eight legs Question: Does Peter have eight legs? Yes, Peter has eight legs. However, the conclusion is still logically valid because it follows from the two starting premises.

Second is the ability to use logical Induction When we used deductive logic above we made general statements about men and about dogs.

We used these to show something specific about a man Peter, showing he had eight legs and a dog Rex, showing he had fur. With inductive logic we take a specific example to tell us something about the general. For example, you might have noticed that most windows are made of glass. We could say the following Step one: All the windows I have seen are made of glass Step two: Therefore all windows are made of glass Notice that inductive reasoning can involve probability.

However, there is nothing stopping a window from being made of plastic or of jelly. You should know something about logical induction: This is that it makes a statement which is not strictly provable. The idea that they are is just inferred from my experience. This notion of inference helps separate deductive and inductive reasoning. Hopefully you found some of that interesting, although it can be a lot to pick up all at once.

These are going to be really interesting, and once you have a grip on them you can happily say you know about all the Ways of Knowing. Good job keeping up with your Theory of Knowledge work, soon you will be a ToK master!