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Appeal for amnesty campaign in 1961 london

Amnesty International's vision is of a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards. Amnesty International undertakes research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from appeal for amnesty campaign in 1961 london, within the context of its work to promote all human rights.

AI takes its first mission to Ghana in January; a Prisoner of Conscience Fund is established to assist prisoners and their families. Eric Baker takes over the running of AI from Benenson; the position of president is abolished. AI launches its first worldwide campaign for the abolition of torture. AI is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Thomas Hammarberg of Sweden becomes secretary general. AI publishes its first educational pack, "Teaching and Learning about Human Rights," and broadens its statute to include work for refugees.

Ian Martin becomes secretary general. AI campaigns for a permanent International Criminal Court. AI appoints Irene Khan secretary general--the first woman, first Muslim, and the first person from Asia, to serve as secretary general.

AI wins The Revolution Awards 2001 for "best use of e-mail" with its www.

  1. As an organization motivated by Christian principles, Amnesty remained decidedly anticommunist.
  2. To learn when was amnesty organization in july 1961 in london, the launch of the appeal for amnesty, 1961, a world campaign to stop human. The organization set out to follow Voltaire's famous philosophy.
  3. His leadership skills proved equal to the task. The Nobel Committee based its selection on a number of factors, not the least of which was AI's apolitical stance.
  4. In , the organisation received the Nobel Peace Prize.
  5. In 1964, Mandela was charged with sabotage and sentenced to life in prison. Northeastern University Press, 2001, 331 p.

Two students in Portugal raise their glasses and toast, "To freedom. With a membership of more than 1 million worldwide and originator and sponsor of countless campaigns for a host of human rights issues, AI is, in the words of Jean-Pierre Hocke, former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, "simply unique. The two students who toasted to freedom were arrested and sentenced to seven years in jail for this offense. Benenson had been involved appeal for amnesty campaign in 1961 london human rights issues for nearly 20 years prior to 1960.

After reading the article about the students, he approached Louis Blom-Cooper, the legal correspondent at the London Observer. Benenson had an idea for an amnesty campaign for political prisoners. Blom-Cooper suggested an article in the Observer to launch the campaign. Benenson and his friend Eric Baker, and several of Benenson's colleagues, spent the next several months outlining a strategy for their "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961" campaign.

Along the way, Baker and Benenson collected material for a book on political prisoners' cases, called Persecution '61. On May 28, 1961, "The Forgotten Prisoners" was published.

The piece highlighted eight such prisoners, from various countries around the world. The response to the article was swift and tremendous.

Newspapers around the world picked up the piece and ran it. Letters, donations, and information on other prisoners of conscience flooded to the Observer and the Appeals Office. Benenson and his colleagues put responders who lived close to each other in touch and encouraged the formation of local groups. Benenson came up with the "Threes" idea: Diana Redhouse, a British artist who also founded what may be the first AI local group, was asked by Benenson to design AI's logo, a candle surrounded by barbed wire.

Benenson said the image was inspired by an ancient proverb: By that time, Benenson and representatives of groups working outside Britain had met and decided that the work was too important to last for only one year. The organization's name was changed to Amnesty International.

Appeal for amnesty campaign in 1961 london

The group established that it would not accept money from governments or governmental organizations and thus would be able to remain objective, not subject to political pressure. The organization set out to follow Voltaire's famous philosophy: The organization's accuracy has been widely recognized and its credibility has helped it remain influential.

London, 1961: The Foundation of Amnesty International

AI policy established that members would not work on their own country's research or on behalf of prisoners in their own country. Nor would members be responsible in any way for any of AI's work in their own country.

Appeal for amnesty campaign in 1961 london

Members could, however, lobby their government to implement human rights measures. Prisoners of conscience adopted by AI, become the subjects of a global campaign. Members write letters on the prisoners' behalf, support the prisoners' families, arrange vigils, and more. AI also issues Urgent Action appeals for prisoners who are in imminent danger due to factors such as ill health or prolonged poor prison conditions.

Then the pressure on me decreased and conditions improved," he said. In addition to its research and publicity campaigns, AI has routinely sent missions into hot spots around the world.

The Forgotten Prisoners

The missions' delegates are carefully selected based on the proposed delegates' qualifications, appeal for amnesty campaign in 1961 london, and gender in countries where the latter might be an issue. Missions often but not always have presented their report to the host country's government.

At times a mission would be refused entry into a country and in some cases delegates have been harassed and imprisoned. The IEC consists of seven members, each representing a different area of the world in which AI is active.

The IEC meets at least twice a year. Its members can serve up to three consecutive two-year terms. It is, according to AI's statue, the "ultimate authority for the conduct of the Affairs of Amnesty International.

The secretary general is the head of the Office of the International Secretariat. AI's "mandate" is the set of rules that has established the organization's action parameters--what the organization and its individual groups can and cannot do--and goals. The early mandate was simple, focusing on articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Prisoners of Conscience Campaign. In the mid-1970s, AI added a rule, forbidding members from taking on cases in their own country.

Over the years the mandate expanded to include many social issues, such as women's rights and the rights of asylum seekers in the country to which they flee. In a controversial decision, AI added to their list of prisoners of conscience, people imprisoned solely due to their sexual orientation.

Many members worried, over the years, that with each expansion of its mandate the organization was spreading itself too thin, and its work would suffer. So far, it appears that has not been the case. At the time, he was leading peaceful antiapartheid activities. In 1964, Mandela was charged with sabotage and sentenced to life in prison.

His turn to violence meant that, according to AI's mandate, he could no longer be considered a prisoner of conscience. But the British group that had adopted him continued campaigning for his release.

Their actions resulted in a crisis that led to a membership poll. The overwhelming majority felt that AI should stick to its mandate and drop Mandela as a prisoner of conscience. However, many people felt it was wrong to abandon him at the time he was sentenced to a life term.

Appeal for Amnesty campaign launches

The compromise that was reached, and used many times later for other cases, was that Mandela would be dropped as a prisoner of conscience. However, AI would petition the court on his behalf if it found out that the prison conditions were inhumane, if torture was used, or if the trial was deemed unfair. In 1966, a far worse crisis erupted that threatened to destroy the organization.

It resulted in Peter Benenson's resignation as president, and his severing his ties with AI for a few years. The crisis began with AI's decision to investigate British conduct against suspected terrorists in Aden, a British colony.

London, 1961: The Foundation of Amnesty International

The Swedish section of AI was given the task of investigating the allegations. Once the highly critical report was written, Benenson was convinced the London office was suppressing it under pressure from the British Foreign Office. After investigating the report in person, Benenson published it himself in Sweden.

  • The International Human Rights Movement;
  • Thomas Hammarberg was chosen as secretary general in July 1980;
  • Within several weeks, volunteer groups had been established in several European countries.

Benenson began a campaign to move AI's headquarters to Switzerland, known for its neutrality. He could not convince anyone else at the organization of this need. Eventually, Benenson contacted famed human rights activist and AI member Sean MacBride, and together they decided to appoint an impartial investigator to look at Benenson's allegations. While the report was being compiled, proof that Benenson himself took money from the British government to finance a fact-finding mission in Rhodesia came to light.

In March 1967, with AI on the brink of self-destruction, the executive board held an emergency meeting, in which Benenson's resignation was accepted. The position of president was abolished, and Eric Baker was chosen as interim director general. Building A Strong Organization: His leadership skills proved equal to the task.

  • On this day in history - may 28 appeal for amnesty campaign launches once again, it should be reiterated, that;
  • Amnesty international was founded in london in , launched the campaign appeal for amnesty and first defined a prisoner of conscience;
  • Amnesty international was founded in london in , it marked the launch of appeal for amnesty, , amnesty international continued to campaign against.

By July 1968, when Martin Ennals was appointed secretary general, the number of AI groups was growing again, and more than a tenth of the prisoners of conscience the group adopted were freed. Ennals headed AI for 12 years, and the highlight of his administration was the Nobel Peace Price awarded to the organization in 1977.

He was known as a warmhearted individual, eager to help in every situation. These characteristics helped reduce the tension and mistrust that still lingered in the wake of the 1966 crisis. Under Ennals' direction, AI formalized its stand against the death penalty, and formalized its methods of work. Thomas Hammarberg was chosen as secretary general in July 1980.

He was more of a stickler for rules, compared to Ennals. He strode to streamline the organization, and placed emphasis on clarity and consistency in AI's global communication. In the first two years of his administration, AI doubled its membership. In addition, as part of his campaign to attract younger members, he came up with the Human Rights Now! Rock Tour, a tour that swept through 19 countries featuring the likes of Peter Gabriel and Sting. Martin initiated sweeping organizational changes in the Secretariat, and introduced management training to the people in charge.

The Nobel Peace Prize: AI designated the award money to promote the organization in the Third World, where its presence was traditionally weak. The Nobel Committee based its selection on a number of factors, not the least of which was AI's apolitical stance.

  • Benenson said the image was inspired by an ancient proverb;
  • The Story of Amnesty International Boston;
  • Their friendship, shared vision, and continued correspondence would soon lead to the founding of Amnesty;
  • Amnesty international day takes place on may 28, because it was on that day in when lawyer he also announced an amnesty campaign called appeal for amnesty.

In the presentation speech, Aase Lionas, chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, also cited the impressive results AI achieved in its prisoners of conscience campaign.

Of 6,000 prisoners AI adopted between 1972 and 1975, more than 3,000 had been released. AI's secretary general, Martin Ennals, remained true to form and elected to keep a prior commitment--AI's first anti-death-penalty conference--instead of going to Oslo to receive the prize.