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B list each of the eras in it infrastructure evolution and describe its distinguishing characteristi

What is IT infrastructure and what are its components? Define IT infrastructure from both a technology and a services perspective. In this sense, IT infrastructure focuses on the services provided by all the hardware and software.

IT infrastructure is a set of firm-wide services budgeted by management and comprising both human and technical capabilities. List and describe the components of IT infrastructure that firms need to manage. Students may wish to use Figure 5-10 to answer the question.

IT infrastructure today is composed of seven major components. What are the stages and technology drivers of IT infrastructure evolution? List each of the eras in IT infrastructure evolution and describe its distinguishing characteristics. Five stages of IT infrastructure evolution include: Define and describe the following: Moore later reduced the rate of growth to a doubling every two years. Almost all of this information growth involves magnetic storage of digital data, and printed documents account for only 0.

The cost of storing digital information is falling at an exponential rate of 100 percent a year. Both of these concepts explain developments that have taken place in computer processing, memory chips, storage devices, telecommunications and networking hardware and software, and software design that have exponentially increased computing power while exponentially reducing costs.

Describe how network economics, declining communication costs, and technology standards affect IT infrastructure. As the number of members in a network grows linearly, the value of the entire system grows exponentially and theoretically continues to grow forever as members increase.

Rapid decline in costs of communication and the exponential growth in the size of the Internet is a driving force that affects the IT infrastructure. As communication costs fall toward a very small number and approach zero, utilization of communication and computing facilities explodes. Growing agreement in the technology industry to use computing and communication standards. Technology standards unleash powerful economies of scale and result in price declines as manufacturers focus on the products built to a single standard.

Without economies of scale, computing of any sort would be far more expensive than is currently the case. What are the current trends in computer hardware platforms? Describe the evolving mobile platform, grid computing, and cloud computing. Data transmissions, Web surfing, e-mail and instant messaging, digital content displays, and data exchanges with internal corporate systems are all available through a mobile digital platform.

  1. The service-based definition focuses on the services provided by the hardware and software, such as computing platforms, telecommunications, physical facilities management, application software, data management, IT management, IT standards, IT educations, and IT research and development. Multicore processors Benefits of multi-core processors.
  2. Availability was listed as Amazon can generate extra revenue from other businesses by offering its excess capacity to those that need it.
  3. These resources are accessed by any needy through connected devices. The service-based definition focuses on the services provided by the hardware and software, such as computing platforms, telecommunications, physical facilities management, application software, data management, IT management, IT standards, IT educations, and IT research and development.
  4. The system is scalable and reliable for both Amazon and subscribers.

Netbooks, small low-cost lightweight subnotebooks that are optimized for wireless communication and Internet access, are included. Explain how businesses can benefit from autonomic computing, virtualization, and multicore processors. Autonomic computing Benefits of autonomic computing include systems that automatically do the following: Higher utilization rates translate into fewer computers required to process the same amount of work.

Multicore processors Benefits of multi-core processors: What are the current trends in software platforms? Define and describe open source software and Linux and explain their business benefits. Open-source software provides all computer users with free access to the program code so they can modify the code, fix errors in it, or to make improvements.

Open-source software is not owned by any company or individual. A global network of programmers and users manage and modify the software. By definition, open-source software is not restricted to any specific operating system or hardware technology.

  1. Amazon provides cloud computing, also known as on-demand computing or utility computing. Apply these concepts both to Amazon and to subscribers of its services.
  2. Mainframes were the first powerful computers that could provide time sharing, multi tasking, and virtual memory, and became powerful enough to support thousands of remote terminals.
  3. Comment 0 Step 3 of 5 Web server. Instead of buying and installing software programs, subscribing companies can rent the same functions from these services.

Several large software companies are converting some of their commercial programs to open source. Linux is the most well-known open-source software. It is reliable, compactly designed, and capable of running on many different hardware platforms, including servers, handheld computers, and consumer electronics.

Linux has become popular during the past few years as a robust low-cost alternative to UNIX and the Windows operating system. Thousands of open-source programs are available from hundreds of Web sites. Businesses can choose from a range of open-source software including operating systems, office suites, Web browsers, and games.

Open-source software allows businesses to reduce the total cost of ownership. Define and describe Web services and the role played by XML. Web services offer a standardized alternative for dealing with integration across various computer platforms.

Web services are loosely coupled software components based on XML and open Web standards that are not product specific and can work with any application software and operating system. They can be used as components of Web- based applications linking the systems of two different organizations or to link disparate systems of a single company.

Web services are not tied to a particular operating system or programming language. Different applications can use them to communicate with each other in a standard way without time-consuming custom coding. XML provides a standard format for data exchange, enabling Web services to pass data from one process to another Businesses use Web services to tie their Web sites with external Web sites creating an apparently seamless experience for users.

The benefit derives from not having to re- create applications for each business partner or specific functions within a single company. Define and describe software mashups and widgets.

Mashups are new software applications and services based on combining different online software applications using high-speed data networks, universal communication standards, and open-source code. Entrepreneurs are able to create new software applications and services based on combining different online software applications.

Web mashups combine the capabilities of two or more online applications to create a kind of hybrid that provides more customer value than the original sources alone. Widgets are small software programs that can be added to Web pages or placed on the desktop to provide additional functionality.

Web widgets run inside a Web page or a blog. Businesses benefit most from these new tools and trends by not having to re-invent the wheel. Widgets have already been developed by someone else and a business can use them for its own purposes. Mashups let a business combine previously developed Web applications into new ones with new purposes. Name and describe the three external sources for software.

Software packages from a commercial software vendor: Instead of buying and installing software programs, subscribing companies can rent the same functions from these services.

Users pay for the use of this software either on a subscription or a per-transaction basis. The business must carefully assess the costs and benefits of the service, weighing all people, organizational, and technology issues. It must ensure it can integrate the software with its existing systems and deliver a level of service and performance that is acceptable for the business.

Outsourcing custom application development: Service level agreements are formal contracts between customers and service providers that define the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the level of service expected by the customer. What are the challenges of managing IT infrastructure and management solutions?

Name and describe the management challenges posed by IT infrastructure. Creating and maintaining a coherent IT infrastructure raises multiple challenges including: Making wise infrastructure investments: IT infrastructure is a major capital investment for the firm. If too much is spent on infrastructure, it lies idle and constitutes a drag on firm financial performance.

Dealing with scalability and technology change: As firms shrink, they can get stuck with excessive infrastructure purchased in better times. Scalability refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down. Explain how using a competitive forces model and calculating the TCO of technology assets help firms make infrastructure investments The competitive forces model can be used to determine how much to spend on IT infrastructure and where to make strategic infrastructure investments, starting out new infrastructure initiatives with small experimental pilot projects and establishing the total cost of ownership of information technology assets.

The total cost of owning technology resources includes not only the original cost of acquiring and installing hardware and software, but it also includes the ongoing administration costs for hardware and upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training, and even utility and real estate costs for running and housing the technology.

The TCO model can be used to analyze these direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual cost of specific technology implementations. Business Problem-Solving Case page 230: What technology services does Amazon provide? What are the business advantages to Amazon and to subscribers of these services?

What are the disadvantages to each? What kinds of businesses are likely to benefit from these services? Amazon provides cloud computing, also known as on-demand computing or utility computing.

Similar to other utility providers like electric, water, and natural gas, Amazon provides computing capacity to businesses that want to pay only for what they use.

Amazon can generate extra revenue from other businesses by offering its excess capacity to those that need it. Like most companies, Amazon used only a small portion of it total computing capacity at any one time. Its infrastructure is considered by many to be among the most robust in the world. Subscribers to the Simple Storage Service S3 can use only what they need without having to purchase their own hardware and software. That reduces the total cost of ownership for small and medium-size businesses.

The system is scalable and reliable for both Amazon and subscribers. Risks associated with incorporating the technology are minimal for businesses—Amazon takes most of the risks.

Companies may want to go with more established names in computing; Amazon is not known as a technology company—its reputation is more as a retailer. Businesses, large and small, can benefit from using AWS.

The service relieves small business from the TCO of having its own systems. AWS creates the opportunity for others to work at Web scale without making the mistakes that Amazon has already made and learned from. How do the concepts of capacity planning, scalability, and TCO apply to this case?