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Writing Reports We start here — at the end - so that you can see where we are going and so that you can build up a picture of the final product. This section is quite long as it also serves as a reference for the writing-up of your dissertation. The main issues that you need to cover here are presented in Harris 1986 and in many other textbooks. The basic rule is to be precise, concise and use the conventions of reporting, referencing and data presentation that are set out in the guides.

Harris 1986 is the recommended course text for this unit.

  • However, do not be afraid to question previous research if you find something contrary to it;
  • Therefore, when you think about constructing your descriptive research question, make sure you have included any words that provide greater context to your question;
  • Use number of to refer to quantities of things that can be counted - i;
  • Give sufficient detail in the text to show exactly how and why you are citing a reference source;
  • The background and establishment of the research theme.

It can be found in the Arts and Social Sciences Library and the full reference is: Designing and Reporting Experiments. BF200 HAR Although the book is aimed at psychology students, a lot of the material is relevant to those who study Deaf Studies as well.

Another useful text to which you may wish to refer is: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: PN147 PUB This text is quite dense and can be hard to follow but provides exhaustive details of how to prepare manuscripts for publication, including dissertations and theses. Whilst Harris 1986 also covers relevant aspects of quantitative research, it does not include qualitative research within its scope.

The suggested text for qualitative research methods is: Research methods in health: Investigating health and health services. These are well worth taking a look at, and some of them will match your l evel of knowledge and interest. So What is a Dissertation? If we imagine the process of writing a project report, it can be thought of as like an hourglass shape.

So it is broad at the top, gradually narrows to a point and then starts to broaden again. This is how your research report should look. At this point there should be a precise and logical statement.

The methodology of how to approach this by dissertation doing edition qualitative second understanding writing then begins to broaden it out and the research study that is designed is a way to make operational, the ideas, takes this further. The research results are then likely to lead outwards with implications and then into the discussion that begins to draw out the implications for the field in general.

There are a number of variations on the structure but the papers should include: The background and establishment of the research theme. This should include a brief and concise version of the review of the literature. It is designed to show that the candidate is capable of critical analysis of current research work and can deal with the theories or models proposed in that field.

This should lead to the Statement of a Research Question. This will have several sections. First, the Aims and Objectives will be presented. If these are to be expressed as hypotheses, they should appear here. Second, the methods to be used and general procedure. This part should indicate which methods have been chosen and how these are to be implemented.

It should indicate the sampling and reasoning behind this. It should indicate how participants were contacted and how the design was formulated. Third, the Pilot Work. This should explain how you prepared for the main study by trying out the method and materials. Say what you learned and how your study was altered as a result. Finally, the Procedure - the implementation of the method should be described, showing what actually happened, what was measured and what analysis has been carried out.

The success of this section is measured by how well another person can duplicate your study by just by dissertation doing edition qualitative second understanding writing your report.

Make sure that the measurement is clear and that the tables are self-explanatory so they have to have labels and numbers e. You should include the plans for future work, in the context of what you would do next time to improve the study. These plans have to arise from and relate to the pilot work and the work reported.

It should help us to understand the research question better. There is always some learning from the conduct of the research, so be positive and search for the real explanations of your findings, even if they seem to be limited at first.

Be systematic, be concise, be positive and be precise in what you say, and how you apply the format. Writing — A Style Guide [Dr. Sarah Stevenage from the University of Southampton wrote this section. Very often, the problem is not the writing but the whole host of emotions that a blank piece of paper seems to create. For instance, there is the feeling that you have to get it right - first time - because you YOU are being judged on what you write.

The simple act of submitting a report opens up the field for criticism.

Dissertation / Thesis Research and Writing: Books

Sometimes you can feel that you are not qualified to criticise the work of people who have numerous years of expertise in an area while you have merely read a couple of papers. The result then is a paper that reads more like a reiteration of the work of others rather than a critical evaluation of that work. In this section it is hoped you will gain some insight into what the reader wants from a piece of writing.

  • Remember to use the facts to support or refute what the theories are suggesting;
  • However, how the dependent variable is written out in a research question and what you call it are often two different things;
  • It is designed to show that the candidate is capable of critical analysis of current research work and can deal with the theories or models proposed in that field.

There are, of course, some rules to follow and these are explained below. However, the main aim is to help you to gain confidence in your own writing abilities. Your style of writing is critical in persuading your reader of the validity of your ideas. Confidence can help you achieve a writing style that makes you, and your work, believable.

Helpful Hints - Things to Do Generally: Too often, people view the writing stage of a piece of work as the boring bit. It no longer interests them and so they write as thought they are bored to tears with the topic. This should not be the case. There are several things you can do to safeguard against this. The first is obvious. Write a report up as soon as you can.

This will also help against the failures of the human memory! Secondly, before you start writing, make sure you are in the right mood. How can you motivate others if you are not motivated? Thirdly, view the report as a way of imparting knowledge to others.

After all, you have just completed a piece of research that, perhaps, no-one else has done and you should want to tell people what you have found. Rather than being the boring bit of the process, this is actually the exciting bit. You are in a position to help the scientific community pull together disparate pieces of information and fill in another piece of an, as yet unsolved, puzzle. Think about your writing style: Style is a very important element of good writing.

How to do your dissertation secondary research in 4 steps

It is certainly true that how you say something is as important as what you say. It is also true that the quality of presentation of your ideas can often be presumed to reflect the quality of those ideas. If you write using sloppy English then the reader cannot be sure whether it is your English that is sloppy or whether it is your ideas by dissertation doing edition qualitative second understanding writing are at fault. They will stumble over badly constructed sentences and will have to read and re-read sentences to search for the information they need to make it all fit together.

What you must work towards is achieving clarity. If you can write clearly, then the reader can go at a faster pace and will then be less likely to lose the thread of your argument. Below, are some points that may help you to achieve this.

Keep in mind your aim: Informing your reader means that you need to be a reliable source of information. You must persuade, as well as inform him that your work is credible. If you can demonstrate that you have researched an area accurately and have reported the work of others clearly and honestly then you raise your own credibility. Doing this makes it more likely that the reader will accept your own ideas too.

This leads to two further points: It is not enough to provide your reader with fact after fact. You must also endeavour to provide explanations. What you should be aiming to do is to provide the reader with a logical path through what may otherwise be a maze of facts and theories.

Do this by interrelating theoretical ideas with the facts from previous research. Remember to use the facts to support or refute what the theories are suggesting. Evaluate the work that you are reviewing. That is; how do the results from one source fit with the results from another source? Is there any contradiction in the published literature? Is there any clear conclusion that can be drawn so far? You all have good minds and are eminently capable of evaluating the worth of a set of data, even if only tentatively: Maintaining honesty means not being selective in the facts that you use or the theories you review.

We can all thread a few carefully chosen facts together to make a story that fits with our intuitions and seems to have external validity.