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Comparrison theories carl rogers and abraham maslow

These psychologies defining similarity is that they both place emphasis on life meaning, objective reality and human potential Cozon, 2008 and incorporate methods to comparrison theories carl rogers and abraham maslow human experiences.

Therefore the premise of this paper is to elicit the significant 2 roles each psychology plays in contributing to understanding aspects of human nature and provide an overview and evaluation of the approaches by comparing and contrasting the observed similarities and differences within their assumptions. To expand on these perspectives, it appears to be implied that Humanistic psychology centres on growth and kindles positive change, whereas Existential psychology perceives people as not having an internal nature to count on Cozen, 2008.

However having the capability for self-awareness and choice, is a belief shared by Humanistic and Existential approaches but this belief comes from differing ideologies CSAT, 1999. The Humanistic approach observes that people are able to free themselves to encompass their goodness and potential Hoffman, 2004 allowing 3 them to make choices with their life experiences.

In other words, if we are predominately content with our needs being met and thus feel confident and motivated to move forward in expanding our potential to its fullest, a sense of overall fulfilment can be achieved. This ideology thus takes into consideration a similarity to the Existential approach, in that it values within a person the means to develop the ability to become responsible for self direction. Therefore with an awareness of this it is possible for a person to adapt positively to their concerns that then initiates growth and hopefully motivation towards change Rowan, 2005 and their true self.

It is then assumed that when a person who does not have all these ideals in their cognition, the opportunity to be aware of how to implement them within their being personal learning, psychotherapy-Humanisticmay enable them to ascertain a sense of optimism to moving in a direction where they feel more positive about themselves and their abilities as well as give them the capability to amend functionalities that have prevented them moving forward.

In contrast to this, Existential psychology observes that people can find meaning in the face of anxiety by choosing Sartre, 1958, van Deurzen-Smith, 1988, Strasser, 1997 to think and act authentically and be responsible for how they accomplish this.

Thus allowing them to develop the ability to change van Deurzen-Smith, 2006 and enhance their abilities to move in a more optimistic direction.

  • Someone who is not as actualised and authentic may lack a positive awareness of their potentialities and therefore be less inclined to motivate themselves;
  • Self-concept and conditions of worth are linked together and are important;
  • A person we would like to be;
  • Therefore in an ever changing world, are we not constantly facing these limitations and possibilities in correlation to relationship to others and experiences of the environment around us?

Even though Humanistic and Existential Psychologies value beliefs from differing ideologies the do share a lot in common. Humanistic psychology consideration of development seems to evolve around a person having limitless possibilities for growth that is observed with a nurturing and supportive outlook. When these conditions are not right, such as certain experiences causing anxiety, development and growth can be restricted.

As a person becomes aware of the processes that are causing their anxieties and thus made aware of their awareness processes, the means to understanding themselves in a more positive way can facilitate development of internal self-support and the opportunity to grow. Existential perspectives acknowledge that anxieties are sometimes not avoidable but they can be worked on and interpreted to make sense of them in the hope of development.

This occurs when a person addresses anxieties with determination and curiosity, gains an understanding of how to accept the reasons underlying their issues and evaluates the thought processes that are responsible for mis-understanding and evading life experiences van Deurzen-Smith, 2006.

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Once a person has recognised in themselves the opportunity to develop and grow, then maybe they can become more inclined to change? Humanistic psychology suggests that if we do not restrict ourselves by acknowledging our potentials then we should be able to implement processes that enable us to feel confident to change and move in a more optimistic direction Rowan, 2005.

In other words if we begin to look at ourselves in ways that enable us to diminish our self-imposed limitations through self-discovery or psychotherapywe possibly may be more inclined to recognise within us the abilities to see what we need to do to change how we feel and think in a positive way. From an existential perspective, change and transformation is one life long process and although it is most often that someone wishes to implement change, aspects in their lives imposes on them to continuing their present situation.

  • This affects the opinion of how we behave, think and feel about ourselves in the world;
  • Rogers recognized that it was completely necessary for individuals to grow in a positive environment where transparency is embraced and where they were not being judged in order to develop correctly;
  • The self is the central construct in this theory.

It is then perhaps most likely that the sense of having to conform to the impositions placed on us by others and our environment as well as not having the conviction to rely on our own potentials, reduces our abilities to find within ourselves the confidence to make the changes we need. As it at these times of crises we then can try to recognise and establish within ourselves the means to revise our negative modes of functioning and initiate changes for the better van Deurzen-Smith, 2008.

From the ideologies in Humanistic and Existential psychologies it seems that self-actualisation and authenticity come about once all these processes have been fulfilled and our potentialities are complete. These theories give the impression that we have to develop a greater awareness and understanding of ourselves as individuals to then enable us to obtain the capacity and capabilities to live our life to its fullest even when faced with circumstances out of our control.

What maybe is implied here is that obtaining self- actualisation is a continuous process rather comparrison theories carl rogers and abraham maslow a means to an end and is. We may come to points in our lives where we are happy with its direction and happy with who we are and where we fit in the world, yet is this ever enough, are we actually always on a continuum of self-actualising to achieve fulfilment when other needs have been met? Some-one who has a good level of actualisation and authenticity should be able to take comfort in that they are confident in their potentialities and thus be able to make positive steps to regaining back these needs.

  • This incorporates our inner personality and influences our body image;
  • Thus, it is greatly unlike the id since it is not inconsiderate;
  • Perspectives on personality 7th ed.

Someone who is not as actualised and authentic may lack a positive awareness of their potentialities and therefore be less inclined to motivate themselves. With all this in mind self-actualising is most probably a process 11 that strives to ascertain the self on a moment to moment basis, but in contrast to this, self-actualisation in its finite implies an ending to the search Cohen, 2008. On reflection, this striving for self maybe refutes the idea of a finally achieving self- actualisation because an actualised self indicates an absolute end to self-change, which in theory is unattainable Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, Erikson, 1995, Peiper, 1952.

Maslow and Rogers Comparison

The same can be said for authenticity and the goal of being true to oneself in the hope of becoming more real. For people to become authentic…means them …gaining a greater understanding of the human condition, so that they can respond to it with a sense of mastery, instead of mercy. Therefore in an ever changing world, are we not constantly facing these limitations and possibilities in correlation to relationship to others and experiences of the environment around us?

Do we end up caught in a cycle of perpetuated circumstances that we have to adapt to? So maybe it is more significant to review self- actualisation and authenticity as something that is ongoing for a person, a process of 12 been able to feel true and real to whatever circumstances come along rather than value them as an ultimate goals. Conclusion Humanistic and Existential psychologies appear to be similar in terms of theory.

Observing the similarities puts them in close dialogue with each other as both approaches place value in self-awareness, the basic goodness in people and the human potential existential-therapy. An Approach from the Viewpoint of Humanistic Psychology, 4th ed.

Papers, University of Otago, New Zealand. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. The wheel of existence. Sage [internet] Available at: J, 1995 The Importance of Authenticity for Self and society.

Principles and Application of Logotherapy. The world Publishing company [internet] Available at: An Approach from the Viewpoint of Humanistic Psychology, 4 th ed. Cozen 2008 Existential vs Humanistic. Excitement and Growth in Human Personality. Gestalt Journal Press Pieper, J.

The Basis of culture. A Therapist View of Psychotherapy. Uk Association of Humanistic Psychology Practitioners. An Essay in Phenomenological Ontology.

Psychology 1: A comparison between the psychoanalytic and humanistic approaches

Both Humanistic and Existential value choice as significant in the process of ascertaining a healthy psychological well being as it is a function that we all have Rogers, 1961, Sartre, 1958, van Deurzen-Smith, 1988, Strasser, 1997. From a Humanistic outlook, Rogers 1961 suggests that in the procedure of becoming ourselves there is a great experiencing of choice. We can choose to continue to be untrue to ourselves or take the chance in being our real self. We have the capacity to be comparrison theories carl rogers and abraham maslow agents with the power to develop ourselves or not.

So to function in a way that facilitates a positive sense of well being, we have to have an understanding and awareness of the circumstances created by our choices and feel confident about accepting our decisions.

The existential position however observes that we choose to create ourselves and our choices have many possibilities which are to be taken into consideration within the context of existential human possibilities, limitations and the anxiety that surrounds them Strasser, 1997. As a person begins to establish the means to face the uncertainties and ambiguities in life by taking into consideration interpersonal relationships, realising the time for intervention, having an awareness of values and their sedimentations, exploring their physical, public, private and spiritual existence, identifying self-concept and self- esteem and challenging misconceptions surrounding anxieties, the opportunity to 18 ascertain greater awareness and more authentic thinking can be brought forward and thus, even with limitations, choices will come into sight Strasser, 1997.