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Discriminatory practices that take place in school settings that affect children

Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion.

For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkansknown as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah. The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather than 'flock' or 'subjects' in order to emphasize the Christian population's inferior status to that of the Muslim rayah.

  1. While a glass ceiling implies that women are less like to reach the top of the job ladder, a sticky floor is defined as the pattern that women are, compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder.
  2. This discrimination may also impact other family members affected by the disease, including children.
  3. This measure is based on a four-point scale in response to the degree in which depressive symptoms had bothered or distressed them in the past week. Participants responded to a baseline survey prior to recruitment and enrollment in a feasibility study of a psychosocial intervention for HIV-affected youth.

Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylendingoccupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil". In a 1979 consultation on the issue, the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Whereas religious civil liberties, such as the right to hold or not to hold a religious belief, are essential for Freedom of Religion in the United States secured by the First Amendmentreligious discrimination occurs when someone is denied "the equal protection of the laws, equality of status under the law, equal treatment in the administration of justice, and equality of opportunity and access to employment, education, housing, public services and facilities, and public accommodation because of their exercise of their right to religious freedom".

MisogynyMisandryDiscrimination against intersex peopleTransphobiaand Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences.

Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries.

Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance, an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee based on their gender. The gender gap in median earnings of full-time employees according to the OECD 2015. One such example is Wikipedia. In the Wikipedian community, around 13 percent of registered users are women.

Women are not only more harshly scrutinized, but the representation of women authors are also overlooked. Relative to men, across all source lists, women have a 2.

Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one's gender.

Direct sex discrimination is fairly easy to spot — 'Barmaid wanted', but indirect sex discrimination, where an unnecessary requirement puts one sex at a disproportionate disadvantage compared to the opposite sex, is sometimes less easy to spot, although some are obvious — 'Bar person wanted — must look good in a mini skirt'.

Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and womenin some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women, major reviews of the academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women, and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference.

Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex, race, and ethnicity, U.

They outnumbered men in such occupations as public relations managers, financial managers, and human resource managers. While a glass ceiling implies that women are less like to reach the top of the job ladder, a sticky floor is defined as the pattern that women are, compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder.

A sticky floor is related to gender differences at the bottom of the wage distribution. It might be explained by both employer discrimination and gender differences in career aspirations.

Discrimination

Multiple jurisdictions now protect individuals on grounds of intersex status or sex characteristics. South Africa was the first country to explicitly add intersex to legislation, as part of the attribute of 'sex'.

Nevertheless, the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at transgender individuals or with women. Men are often the victim in certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and childcare settings traditionally perceived as "women's jobs".