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Effect of rapid population growth on nigeria economic development

Bangladesh holds 9th position as most populated country according to the U. This release includes revisions for 19 countries and provides information on population size and growth, mortality, fertility and net migration. The top 10 countries each currently have at least 125 million inhabitants. Russia and Japan are projected to soon fall out of this group because of persistent low fertility rates, which have already caused their populations to decline.

The countries expected to advance in the rankings are those with high fertility.

14 Major Negative Effects of Population Explosion

United States and Indonesia will keep hold of their position. Bangladesh has the second birth rate as well as total fertility rate among the Asian countries with India. This is alarming and requires direct and immense attention and action. Over the period of1973 to end of June, 2014 per capita income in Bangladesh increased by only 5.

Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

No possible development plan can sustain such effect of rapid population growth on nigeria economic development rate of population growth. This evidence makes obvious the nature and severity of population problem. Since 1960s different governments have made serious efforts to check the unbridled population growth but the efforts have not succeeded. Because the common man has developed an irrational fear of practicing birth control mainly due to social reasons and cultural factors.

In absolute numbers almost 128 million persons have been added during the last 41 years 1973-2014. The population density has increased three times from 391 persons per square kilometer in 1961 to 1203 persons per square kilometer in 2013. Rural-urban migration has swelled over the years due to push and pull factors and the urban population has increased from 5 million in 1961 to 56 million in 2014. The rate of urban population is 28.

This situation has exerted an enormous pressure on the supply of infrastructure like housing, transportation, electricity, water, sewerage, health and educational faculties. An addition sex ratio has declined over the years. It declined from 115 in 1972 to 111 in 1981 and to 107 in 1995 implying that the frequency of females has followed an increasing trend.

This is distressing and painful and is expected to fall further that will strengthen social, psychological and economic problems for parents as well as females. There seems no elucidation to this agonizing problem in the short-run. Lee and Miller 1990the traditional beliefs about the value of children, particularly sons, as an asset to be relied upon by their parents in agricultural production and to support them effect of rapid population growth on nigeria economic development old age have combined with the practice of polygamy, the fear of child mortality and low levels of female education to encourage high fertility.

Moreover, the continuity of the matrilineal decent group and the influence of religions, which teach that children are gifts from God sharply, limits the prospects for lowering the birth rate.

Afzal 2009Polygamy will make the confusion not as good as confounded. It is extremely difficult to adopt the western social system and values.

Improvement in operation and implementation of the family planning program, increase in female literacy rate and enhancement of women social status appear to be an agreeable solution. Bureau for Census 2014rapid population growth in Bangladesh has been alarming. Bangladesh though ranked 7th in size adds more than twice as many peoples to the absolute growth of world population than USA which ranks third.

This situation has created intractable and complicated social, economic and political problems that have negative impact on the macroeconomic stability of the economy. Ethnic-strife and deteriorating law and order situation, heartbreaking problems of housing, expensive educational and health facilities, traffic density and congestion, frequent and fatal accidents have made the common man life miserable and unsustainable. These problems will heighten if the population drive continues.

These factors have collectively contributed to escalating cost of living that breeds macroeconomic instability on one hand and on the other hand, rising absolute and relative poverty and worsening income inequalities are the direct as well as indirect result of the aforesaid factors. Thus rapid population growth is the bone of disputation as well as root of the problems.

Minoru Tachi and Youchi Okazaki 1965Socio-economic conditions would be better off if population were to grow slowly that would have also resulted in a better social and economic condition. It is also adversely affected by different climatic disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, storm surges, and sea level rise.

For example, two rounds of floods and devastating cyclones Sidr in 2007 and cyclone Aila in 2009, severely damaged agricultural production, especially the rice production and resulted in a severe food crisis. The arable land and almost all crops in Bangladesh rely on irrigation.

Population pressures are threatening arable land, forests and water resources. The size of arable land holdings have decreased due to population growth, inadequate arable land reforms and inheritance patterns.

14 Major Negative Effects of Population Explosion

Before the middle of this century, Bangladesh is projected to face a scarcity of arable land with even less arable land available per person than in China. Population Growth and Economic Development Afzal 2009for many years development economists and social scientists have disputed the seriousness of the consequences of rapid population growth.

Firstly, Population growth is not a problem but there are other issues. Underdevelopment, and not population growth is the genuine problem. As long as greater parts of the people in the developing countries remain poor, uneducated and physically weak, large family will constitute the only real source of social security. Population control programs are not expected to succeed when there is no incentive for the poor families to limit the family size.

Population can only be an economic problem relative to the supply of natural and material resources. The higher fertility of the developing countries is the result of "over-consumption" of the world scarce resources by the rich countries. The average North American or European consumer consumes almost 16 times as much of the world food, energy and material resources as his or her counterpart in the developing countries.

Thus the addition of another child in the developed countries consumes as much as the 16 children consume in the developing countries. The developed countries instead of asking the developing countries to check their population growth should reduce their needless consumption standards. Moreover, population distribution is causing the population problem.

Some regions are under-populated e. Sylhet in Bangladesh, Balochistan province in Pakistan, few regions in Brazil and parts of sub-Saharan Africa while other are over-populated metropolitan cities in Dhaka, Chitagong, Bangladesh, and in other cities of others developing countries due to concentration of employment opportunities and rural-urban migration, resulting from lopsided land and other productive resources distribution.

Therefore, instead of checking population growth, government should discourage rural-urban migration so that more natural spatial distribution of population gains ground. Women often bear the inconsistent burdens of poverty, poor education, lack of jobs and limited social mobility. Their inferior status and roles are manifested in their high fertility.

This argument is closely related to the neocolonial dependence model which is a tortuous outgrowth of Marxist thinking. It has been argued that over anxiety of the developed countries about the population growth of the poor countries is an effort to arrest the development of the developing countries in order to maintain effect of rapid population growth on nigeria economic development status quo that serves their self-interest.

The developed countries also passed through a period of considerable population growth that accelerated their own development. But the developed courtiers are pressurizing the poor countries to adopt aggressive population control programs to restrict their population growth that supports the second line of the pro-population growth argument. Finally, many developing countries population growth is desirable.

This argument is a conventional argument. According to this argument, though rapid population growth results in additional demand for food, clothing, shelter, social services like education and health, and growing employment opportunities, the high population growth also adds to the labor supply that can be used for productive purposes and makes available potential for large markets for goods and services and therefore large population affords a big opportunity to benefit from demographic dividend which can add to growth.

Neoclassical economists argue that free markets will always adjust to the problems created by population growth. It has also been argued that many rural areas in the developing countries are under populated due to scarcity of labor despite the availability of arable land and large increases in agriculture output will occur if labor were available to cultivate it.

Many regions in Africa, Latin America and some parts of Asia have this situation. Furthermore, there are many ethnic, racial and religious groups in developing countries that are enamored of large families, and high population growth is considered desirable for political and military power.

The last argument does not carry a significant weight because the peculiar situation obtaining in few regions does not demand high population growth. The arguments which stated by Afzal 2009 carry some weight but this need to be weighed against the counter arguments of those who believe that rapid population growth is a real problem for LDCs less developed countries.

The advocates maintain that population control or even decline is the most urgent task of the LDCs even if it requires severe and coercive measures like compulsory sterilization in South Asian Countries. Economists argue based on population-poverty cycle theory that rapid population growth gives way to negative economic consequences and this should be a real concern for the developing countries because population growth retards prospects of a better life for the already born by reducing savings rate at the household and national levels.

Empirical evidence divides the negative consequences of population growth into seven categories. Rapid population growth lowers per capita income growth in most LDCs. The poor bears the brunt of the negative effects of population growth.

They become landless, face loss in jobs, and the government reduction of expenditure on education and health. It is generally agreed that large family size and low incomes limit the opportunities of parents to educate all their children. High fertility harms the health of mothers and children. Rapid population growth generates food security problem and contributes to environmental degradation in the form of deforestation, soil erosion, unsafe water, air pollution and urban congestion.

Rapid population growth is the major factor causing increasing international migration both legal and illegal. The Malthusian population trap is the well-known theory of the relationship between population growth and economic development. According to this theory, human population grows geometrically while means of subsistence grow arithmetically being subject to the law of diminishing returns. This theory has convinced many development economists, demographers and policy makers that rapid population growth retards economic development by tightening job markets, generating underemployment and discouraging labor force mobility across sectors.

Malthus Theory is based on a number of simplistic assumptions and hypotheses that do not stand the test of empirical verification.

The economic theory of fertility has gained strong support in diverse developing countries have put forward a theory emphasizing family economics and capital formation.

According to this theory rapid population growth forces families to consume what otherwise would be savings, adversely affecting national savings rates and thus capital formation and investment rates as well.

Though the cross-countries evidence for a negative relationship between population growth and per capita economic growth is inconsistent, some studies find the expected relationship; others find no relationship. The problem of population growth is not simply a problem of numbers but has welfare implications. If development means improvement in living standard, then how does the present population effect of rapid population growth on nigeria economic development in Bangladesh affect the goals of development not only for present generations but also for future generations?

Since cross-countries studies differ on the relationship between population growth and development, given the present population situation in Bangladesh, we examine empirically the relationship between population growth and economic development in Bangladesh.

  • Critically analyzing this situation, it is definitely obvious that the population will double but the space geographical area of Nigeria will not double since it is fixed;
  • Despite all their efforts for raising agricultural production, they are not able to feed their growing population;
  • The labour force in an economy is the ratio of working population to total population;
  • Their inferior status and roles are manifested in their high fertility;
  • It leads to the cutting of forests for cultivation leading to several environmental change;
  • The lack of education especially as related to population education, sex education and the lowering of infant mortality and birth rates.

Methodology Crenshaw et al 1997 used economic growth rates of 75 developing countries and regressed annual average percentage change in real GDP on demographic and macroeconomic variables for the period 1965 to 1990. They find out that an increase in the child population hinders economic progress, while an increase in adult population fosters economic development.

Thus their major conclusion is that the "influence of population growth on economic growth depends on the age of the population segment that is growing". Their study suffers from many methodological problems besides their principal conclusion is debatable.

They used two models that differ only in their specification of population growth as mentioned by the authors. Their study has some problems.

14 Major Negative Effects of Population Explosion

Firstly, it is a cross-section study covering 75 countries. The cross section studies assume that parameters are similar across countries. This is an unrealistic assumption and therefore, these studies have not succeeded in providing a uniform support on population and economic growth relationship.