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F scott fitzgeralds final years plagued by financial worries and his wifes progressive insanity

  1. In the taxi in which Kalman took her to the studio, she changed into her ballet clothes, indifferent to his vehement objections, anxious only to be on time, fuming at the taxi's slow progress. Also he lacks Ernest's quality of a stick hardened in the fire—he is more susceptible to the world.
  2. He sent a copy of the manuscript to Rosalind to counter her criticism of him. Leaves the hospital May 2 against the doctor's advice.
  3. They talked about the way Americans in Paris gossiped nastily about each other. Soon he meets Nick Carraway, a cousin of Daisy, who agrees to set up a meeting.

Salvage and salvation 1930-37 15. Fitzgerald bought his second French car, a blue Renault open touring car. Egorova had recommended Zelda to Nevalskaya, ballet master at the Nice Opera, with whom she continued to study. She was hired to dance a few times during the season in Nice and Cannes; in September she was even asked to dance a solo in the Naples Opera production of Aida, under the direction of Julia Sedova.

Kelly deserts Hollywood to settle on the Riviera with his wife, who drinks more than she should and has a jealous nature. They make friends with Rosemary, a young actress traveling with her mother and a young man fresh out of Yale who, for some unknown reason, leaps overboard in mid-Atlantic.

Francis Melarky is out of—or, at least, not yet in—this new, 11,000-word opening chapter. Fitzgerald worked on it all summer, apparently without a very firm idea of where it was taking him. Not until November, when he was back in Paris, did he see it clearly.

The beach at La Garoupe as Fitzgerald had known it in 1925 was only a memory now; even the Murphys had become mysterious to him, a subject for psychological and sociological examination. Their world had been denatured by hordes of tourists. Pretty much of anything went at Antibes—by 1929, at the most gorgeous paradise for swimmers on the Mediterranean, no one swam any more, save for a short hang-over dip at noon… The Americans were content to discuss- each other in the bar. After one of these visits an exasperated Sara wrote him a caustic letter: It is definitely in the air—and quite unpleasant.

Your infuriating but devoted and rather nice old friend, Sara. Not only did he drink too much in company, but he had formed the habit at Ellerslie of using alcohol as a stimulant when he wrote. He knew how much damage liquor does, but he joked about it. His efforts that summer to get ahead with his novel had him spitting blood, wakening his old terror of tuberculosis.

He went to see a doctor named Villot in Cannes on September 24; X-rays revealed a slight film at the top of his left lung and ganglions on the porta of the liver. Everything else seemed to be more or less in order. The findings were a shock: After a few days in a hotel on the Rue du Bac, they deserted the Left Bank for an apartment west of the Bois de Boulogne, at 10, Rue Pergolese, within walking distance of the Bois.

Diaghilev's death that year in Venice upset her, because she had hoped to win a minor spot with the Ballets Russes.

To her dismay the only offer she did get was to dance the shimmy at the Folies-Bergere. Fitzgerald's worst fears, the intimations of disasterthat had haunted even his first stories, were now realized. The depression that would ruin his country became confused in his mind with his own physical, moral and emotional ruin. He saw Bishop again, then Hemingway. The story of Ernest's sparring match with Callaghan appeared in the New York Herald Tribune on November 24 in a version that made Hemingway look ridiculous.

Furious, convinced that Callaghan had given out the story on his return to the United States, Hemingway pestered Fitzgerald to wire a demand that Morley deny the story. By that time the young Canadian had already written to the Tribune; his letter correcting the account was run a few days later. He also wrote an indignant letter to Fitzgerald accusing him of being influenced by Ernest's suspicion and resentment instead of letting him shoulder his own responsibilities. The answer came from Hemingway, who expressed his regret over the whole incident and confessed that it was he who had insisted, over Scott's reluctance, that the telegram be sent; he would take Morley's reproaches on himself, he said, and was ready to settle the business with his fists on his next trip to the States.

Once again he was caught in the middle … he was always the one who managed to get caught in a bad light… Having been insulted by Ernest that day in the American Club, [Scott] was now insulted by me because he had acted to please Ernest. They talked about the way Americans in Paris gossiped nastily about each other. Hemingway had overlooked his ill feelings toward McAlmon and had recommended him to Perkins, but a conversation with McAlmon persuaded the editor not to publish his work.

Perkins explained why to Fitzgerald, who relayed the information to Hemingway that evening: McAlmon had outraged him by asserting that Ernest was a fairy and Pauline a lesbian, and that Bumby had been bom prematurely because Hemingway had beaten Hadley during her pregnancy. This was the atmosphere of calumny and defamation surrounding Hemingway's insistence that Fitzgerald demand a rectification from Callaghan. Two days later they learned of the suicide of Harry Crosby, a rich and brilliant young expatriate who had f scott fitzgeralds final years plagued by financial worries and his wifes progressive insanity the Black Sun Press.

Saddened, Hemingway wrote to Fitzgerald the following day absolving him, for the first time, of blame for the incident at the American Club. Such mistakes were common in boxing, he explained; Scott had taken too seriously a remark made in anger. It was all because Scott had a chivalric view of sports, whereas in fact the rules were often broken. Why, Ernest affirmed, he had cheated in a bout with Frenchman Jean Prevost in 1925: This was done all the time, Ernest said, and he did not want a misunderstanding to spoil their friendship.

The arrival of Dos Passos, who had just married Smith's sister, Katharine, lightened the atmosphere. These piddling expatriates' wranglings were reduced to their proper proportion when the friends discussed the really serious troubles besetting the Murphys: When he returned to Paris, Dos Passos, who had finished reading the proofs of The 42nd Parallel, looked up some of his old friends, including Blaise Cendrars, who invited the couple to lunch in the garden of his suburban home, and Leger, who had them home for one of Jeanne's succulent blanquettes of veal.

There were no such reunions with the Fitzgeralds, whom Dos Passos found in a stew of unhappiness. The opinion he had formed of Zelda on a Ferris wheel seven years earlier was now confirmed, along with his fears about Scott's alcoholism: They kept to themselves.

This time he used Ginevra King as the model for Josephine, a sixteen-year-old flirt very like the girls in This Side of Paradise. Josephine was to take the lead in four stories written in 1930; four others were rooted in that year's events.

In February both Scott and Zelda felt exhausted and in need of a vacation. Throughout the trip Zelda remained tense and impatient to get back to Paris, unable to brush Egorova and dancing from her mind.

Arabs sold nougat and cakes of poisonous pink under theflare of open gas jets. In the steep cobbled alleys we flinched at the brightness of mutton carcasses swung from the butchers' booths. Her obsession with dancing devoured everything else. She was no sooner back in Paris than she rushed to the studio on the Rue Caumartin like a junkie to her fix, her arms loaded with blossoms bought in the flower market on the Place de la Madeleine.

Thin and haggard, she thought she was being watched, spied on, whispered about. When Bishop lunched with the Fitzgeralds one day, she was sure that he and Scott were talking about her. Her few contacts with old friends depressed her. Xandra and Oscar Kalman, the Fitzgeralds' only close friends in St.

Paul, were invited to the Rue Pergolese. In the middle of lunch Zelda jumped up and dashed off, hastily explaining that she had to leave, that she would be late for her dancing lesson. In the taxi in which Kalman took her to the studio, she changed into her ballet clothes, indifferent to his vehement objections, anxious only to be on time, fuming at the taxi's slow progress.

When it got stuck in a traffic jam, she threw open the door and disappeared at a run in her tights and tutu. A few days later, on April 23, 1930, ten years after her marriage, Zelda's mental condition became so alarming that a doctor advised treatment at the Malmaison clinic, just west of Paris.

She arrived in a state of extreme nervousness and anxiety, wanting to leave there at once. A report by Professor Claudewhom she tried to seduce, ended with the notation: Violent reactions, several suicidal attempts never pushed to the limit.


Leaves the hospital May 2 against the doctor's advice. She suffered from hallucinations, heard threatening, frightening voices, attempted suicide again. A noted specialist, Dr.

Oscar Forel, was called in; he diagnosed her case as schizophrenia and recommended temporary isolation and extended treatment. Two weeks later she was taken to Les Rives de Prangins, the luxurious clinic Forel had opened at the beginning of that year near Rolle, on the shore of Lake Geneva, between Geneva and Lausanne.

By 1930 standards it was a horrendously expensive place—one thousand dollars a month—and she would remain there until September 1931. Forel had banned visits by Scott, but Zelda was allowed to see Scottie ten days after her admittance. Her face, neck and shoulders were covered with a rash that remained with her for the next three months.

  1. Its heroine's name is Alabama and her husband's is Amory Blaine, filched from the protagonist of This Side of Paradise. When he phoned one evening to compliment her on a piece of writing she had sent him, she gushed in gratitude.
  2. She pleaded her case in a letter to Scott, who finally agreed on condition that she have a nurse with her. In Munich, when they went through, the hotels were empty, and they were given the royal suite at the Regina-Palast.
  3. Also very apologeticly since we've had so much of communism lately that I'm not sure it's not the horse who should be riding me.
  4. There is irony here.
  5. Perkins explained why to Fitzgerald, who relayed the information to Hemingway that evening.

When it became increasingly inflamed, Dr. Forel resorted to hypnotism, with spectacular results: But as soon as she regained some lucidity, as soon as awareness returned of the failure of her relations with Scott, the symptoms reappeared like an alarm signal.

His first visit to her, planned for August, had to be postponed until September, and it produced the worsening of her condition that Dr.

The revulsion she felt for her husband was accompanied by fits of affection for a number of women patients and nurses. In November, after another relapse, Dr.

Forel called in an authority on psychoses, Dr. His letters show his eagerness to understand the situation, to assess his professional and conjugal life, to bring out his and Zelda's mistakes and, also, to justify himself, to disown total responsibility for Zelda's collapse. Forel became the moral tribunal to whom he submitted the evidence in his case, often in the form of a plea in his own defense.

These documents, which Nancy Milford procured despite Dr. Forel's initial reluctance, are essential to an understanding of Fitzgerald's feelings during the crisis that marked the turning point in his life. Forel, but to the fact that Zelda became more and more absorbed in her dancing and could no longer participate in family life, even neglecting Scottie.

She was too tired to go out in the evening, he said, while he needed relaxation after working all day. Another bone of contention: He had needed wine ever since he came to France; it was the only thing that made life bearable. Besides, it was Zelda who had got him into this habit. He made a question of principle of it, a matter of dignity. Wasn't this an unconscious, insidious trick of Zelda's? She had openly claimed her independence, had seceded from their union, had plunged with all her being into dancing as if she had found a faith.

Sharing this was impossible. She had abandoned all the functions she had filled until then—wife, mother, hostess, muse.