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Jazz and historical figures mistreated and forgotten by todays society

Truth and Reconciliation in the United States of America: A Call for the U. These serious adversities often lead to toxic stress reactions and chronic and severe trauma. This exposure not only contradicts traditional understandings that children are to be protected and viewed as sacred, but it leaves hundreds of children traumatized and struggling to cope over the course of their lifetime.

Unfortunately, the response of child-serving systems often re-traumatizes the child. Compounding these high rates of violence is historical trauma: Department of Justice, November 2014 Reclaiming our language is one means of repairing the broken circle of cultural loss and pain.

To be able to understand and speak our language means to see the world as our families did for centuries. This is but one path which keeps us connected to our people, the earth, and the philosophies and truths given to us by the Creator. Language Planning and Policy in Native America: Multilingual Matters, 2012, pg. For nearly 300 years white Americans, in our zeal to carve out a nation made to order, have dealt with the Indians on the erroneous, yet tragic, assumption that the Indians were a dying race—to be liquidated.

We took away their best lands; broke treaties, promises; tossed them the most nearly worthless scraps of a continent that had once been wholly theirs. But we did not liquidate their spirit.

The vital spark which kept them alive was hardy… We, therefore, define our Indian policy somewhat as follows: So productively to use the moneys appropriated by the Congress for Indians as to enable them, on good, adequate lands of their own, to earn decent livelihoods and lead self-respecting, organized lives in harmony with their own aims and ideals, as an integral part of American life.

Under such a policy, the ideal end result will be the ultimate disappearance of any need for government aid or supervision. This will not happen tomorrow; perhaps not in our lifetime; but with the jazz and historical figures mistreated and forgotten by todays society of Indian hope due to the actions and attitudes of this government during the last few years, that aim is a probability, and a real one… So intimately is all of Indian life tied up with the land and its utilization that to think of Indians is to think of land.

The two are inseparable. Upon the land and its intelligent use depends the main future of the American Indian. The Indian feels toward his land, not a mere ownership sense but a devotion and veneration befitting what is not only a home but a refuge.

At least nine out of ten Indians remain on or near the land.

Native Americans in Jazz—Present and Past

When times are good, a certain number drift away to town or city to work for wages. When times become bad, home to the reservation the Indian comes, and to the comparative security which he knows is waiting for him. The Indian still has much to learn in adjusting himself to the strains of competition amid an acquisitive society; but he long ago learned how to contend with the stresses of nature. A major aim, then, of the Indian Service is to help the Indians to keep and consolidate what lands they now have and to provide more and better lands upon which they may effectively carry on their lives.

In 1887, the General Allotment Act was passed, providing that after a certain trust period, fee simple title to parcels of land should be given to individual Indians. The Indian let the ownership of his allotted lands slip from him. In 1887, the Indian had remaining 130 million acres. In 1933, the Indian had left only 49 million acres, much of it waste and desert.

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Since 1933, the Indian Service has made a concerted effort—an effort which is as yet but a mere beginning—to help the Indian to build back his landholdings to a point where they will provide an adequate basis for a self-sustaining economy, a self-satisfying social organization.

Thousands of poor women and women of color, including Puerto Ricans, Blacks, and Chicanos, were sterilized in the 1970s, often without full knowledge of the surgical procedure performed on them or its physical and psychological ramifications. Native American women represented a unique class of victims among the larger population that faced sterilization and abuses of reproductive rights. These women were especially accessible victims due to several unique cultural and societal realities setting them apart from other minorities.

After studying the report, Senator Abourezk commented that given the fact of the small population of Native Americans, 3,406 Indian sterilizations would be comparable to 452,000 non-Indian women.

He noted that the study itself revealed some significant weaknesses in the report. For example, only four of the twelve IHS service areas were examined, and during those three years of investigation, not one woman was ever interviewed to find out whether or not she received adequate counseling and education beforehand or had even consented to the procedure…In addition, the GAO study discovered that thirty-six females who were either under the age of twenty or were judged mentally incompetent had undergone sterilization procedures.

This was in direct violation of moratoriums that HEW had sent to all IHS directors… Because of inadequate healthcare, the quality of life on most Indian reservations suffered. Infant mortality was three times the national average and the tuberculosis rate was eight times the national average. The life expectancy for a Native American in 1977 was forty-seven years compared to 70.

  • In those times, nurses were considered uneducated and even promiscuous, and her parents forbade her from that line of work;
  • The following discussion will more closely examine the relationship between jazz music and African American literature during the four time periods introduced above;
  • And so today I stand before you as the leader of an institution that in the past has committed acts so terrible that they infect, diminish, and destroy the lives of Indian people decades later, generations later.

For every seven babies born, one Indian woman was sterilized. A 200 million population could support voluntary sterilization and survive, but for Native Americans it cannot be a preferred method of birth control. The reality was that many doctors failed to explain to women the surgical procedure, its risks, and its permanency. Frequently, physicians also refrained from explaining its irreversibility or offering optional means of birth control. One of the most typical situations in which welfare agents and surgeons would try to convince a mother to agree to sterilization was during labor when she was vulnerable and often medicated.

Some women avoided having their babies at IHS facilities for this reason, but unfortunately the majority of women were unaware of the coercion they were often subjected to. Their population—already devastated by disease, inadequate healthcare and education, wars, removal, cultural genocide through assimilation, broken treaties, and now sterilization—placed a high priority on children as their one hope of survival. Native Americans had and still have a deep sense of family and the importance of extended families.

For more articles like this, go to: As a result of this program, and broader demographic trends in the United States, roughly three-quarters of American Indians now live in urban areas away from their home reservations. Department of the Interior. Assistant Secretary Washburn Announces Final Rule on Secretarial Elections for Federally Recognized Tribes—Also Protects Urban Indian Voting Rights I must add that since my arrival in this country, I have received several letters from organizations and individuals from the first American nation, the American Indians…All these letters which I have received described the conditions of the American Indians here, and I can assure you that they have left me very disturbed.

We must first reconcile ourselves to the fact that the works of this agency have at various times profoundly harmed the communities it was meant to serve. From the very beginning, the Office of Indian Affairs was an instrument by which the United States enforced its ambition against the Indian nations and Indian people who stood in its path.

And so, the first mission of this institution was to execute the removal of the southeastern tribal nations. By threat, deceit, and force, these great tribal nations were made to march 1,000 miles to the west, leaving thousands of their old, their young and their infirm in hasty graves along the Trail of Tears. As the nation looked to the West for more land, this agency participated in the ethnic cleansing that befell the western tribes.

"Jazz Is My Story:" A Historical Analysis of Jazz and 20th Century African-American Literature

War necessarily begets tragedy; the war for the West was no exception. Yet in these more enlightened times, it must be acknowledged that the deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the mighty bison herds, the use of the poison alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life.

This agency and the good people in it failed in the mission to prevent the devastation. And so great nations of patriot warriors fell. We will never push aside the memory of unnecessary and violent death at places such as Sand Creek, jazz and historical figures mistreated and forgotten by todays society banks of the Washita River, and Wounded Knee.

Nor did jazz and historical figures mistreated and forgotten by todays society consequences of war have to include the futile and destructive efforts to annihilate Indian cultures. After the devastation of tribal economies and the deliberate creation of tribal dependence on the services provided by this agency, this agency set out to destroy all things Indian.

This agency forbade the speaking of Indian languages, prohibited the conduct of traditional religious activities, outlawed traditional government, and made Indian people ashamed of who they were. Worst of all, the Bureau of Indian Affairs committed these acts against the children entrusted to its boarding schools, brutalizing them emotionally, psychologically, physically, and spiritually.

Even in this era of self-determination, when the Bureau of Indian Affairs is at long last serving as an advocate for Indian people in an atmosphere of mutual respect, the legacy of these misdeeds haunts us.

The trauma of shame, fear and anger has passed from one generation to the next, and manifests itself in the rampant alcoholism, drug abuse, and domestic violence that plague Indian country.

Many of our people live lives of unrelenting tragedy as Indian families suffer the ruin of lives by alcoholism, suicides made of shame and despair, and violent death at the hands of one another. So many of the maladies suffered today in Indian country result from the failures of this agency. And so today I stand before you as the leader of an institution that in the past has committed acts so terrible that they infect, diminish, and destroy the lives of Indian people decades later, generations later.

These things occurred despite the efforts of many good people with good hearts who sought to prevent them. These wrongs must be acknowledged if the healing is to begin… Let us begin by expressing our profound sorrow for what this agency has done in the past.

Just like you, when we think of these misdeeds and their tragic consequences, our hearts break and our grief is as pure and complete as yours. We desperately wish that we could change this history, but of course we cannot. On behalf of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, I extend this formal apology to Indian people for the historical conduct of this agency.

And while the BIA employees of today did not commit these wrongs, we acknowledge that the institution we serve did. We accept this inheritance, this legacy of racism and inhumanity. And by accepting this legacy, we accept also the moral responsibility of putting things right.

We therefore begin this important work anew, and make a new commitment to the people and communities that we serve, a commitment born of the dedication we share with you to the cause of renewed hope and prosperity for Indian country. Never again will this agency stand silent when hate and violence are committed against Indians.

Never again will we allow policy to proceed from the assumption that Indians possess less human genius than the other races. Never again will we be complicit in the theft of Indian property. Never again will we appoint false leaders who serve purposes other than those of the tribes. Never again will we allow unflattering and stereotypical images of Indian people to deface the halls of government or lead the American people to shallow and ignorant beliefs about Indians.

Never again will we attack your religions, your languages, your rituals, or any of your tribal ways. Never again will we seize your children, nor teach them to be ashamed of who they are. What we do ask is that, together, we allow the healing to begin: As you return to your homes, and as you talk with your people, please tell them that time of dying is at its end. Tell your children that the time of shame and fear is over. Tell your young men and women to replace their anger with hope and love for their people.

Together, we must wipe the tears of seven generations. Together, we must allow our broken hearts to mend. Together, we will face a challenging world with confidence and trust. Together, let us resolve that when our future leaders gather to discuss the history of this institution, it will be time to celebrate the rebirth of joy, freedom, and progress for the Indian Nations.

The Bureau of Indian Affairs was born in 1824 in a time of war on Indian people. May it live in the year 2000 and beyond as an instrument of their prosperity. Video Text Many intensive forms of environmental exploitation and degradation not only exhaust the resources which provide local communities with their livelihood, but also undo the social structures which, for a long time, shaped cultural identity and their sense of the meaning of life and community.

The disappearance of a culture can be just as serious, or even more serious, than the disappearance of a species of plant or animal.