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The characteristics forms and stages of domestic violence

Abstract In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society — physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship.

Domestic Violence and Abuse in Intimate Relationship from Public Health Perspective

Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. It can either results or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, psychological harm, mal-development, or even a death.

Walker points that when one form of family violence appears, we can expect all others, including various aggressive acts outside the family, in community. Domestic violence could include violence between a husband and a wife, a girlfriend and boyfriend, or gay or lesbian partners.

It could be violence between parents and children, adult children and elderly parents, or we could meet it between siblings. They said that intimate partnership abuse can be found in all relationships, both same-sex and heterosexual.

The original terms in USA studies to identify domestic violence include wife abuse, woman abuse, battered women, and partner abuse. Author also exposes that when the physical, sexual and psychological abuse that usually, although not exclusively, is directed against women partners, it is talk in term of domestic violence and abuse, while in the same case when it is directed against children the term child abuse is used much more than domestic violence.

Another period that is especially dangerous for women is at the ending of relationship because their partners become threatened by a clear indication of a change or loss in the relationship. She suggested that sustained periods of living in such a cycle may lead victim to learned helplessness. Abuse Cycle is known also as a Battered Women Syndrome which consists of these symptoms: Gondolf and Fisher found that women in abusive situations shown increase more help-seeking behavior as acts of violence against them intensified.

However, their attempts to find help and protection outside family could be frustrated because on her appeals arrive no responds. In fact, such a behavior pattern explains why for the most victims it is so difficult to break their exhausting relationship. But on the other hand, it is also not so simple if a battered woman decides to stop her relationship. Research data pointed out that leaving the relation with the partner often does not stop the abuse.

Feminist theory argues that wife abuse is directly connected to the patriarchal organization of society, which is reflected in the characteristics forms and stages of domestic violence pattern of behaviors and attitudes toward women.

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A feminist approach emphasizes the significance of gender inequality and contends that it is a major factor in male-female violence. Violence and abuse are viewed as an expression of social power and become used as a way of men to control and dominate their female partners. Men could resort to aggressive forms of control over women particularly when they experience powerlessness.

The patriarchal arrangement of families, ideals of masculinity, and a cultural acceptance of the use of force to gain control over others, all create and also foster a social environment for wife abuse and other forms of family violence. A conflict between siblings is often believed to be driven by jealous rivalry with siblings competing for parental attention and affection. The study of adults revealed that two thirds of them perceived their siblings as rivals during childhood, and perpetrators of sibling violence may be driven by feeling of powerlessness brought on by favoritism.

It contends that behavior is learned in large part through observation, imitation, and reinforcement. Prior to engaging in an observed behavior, an individual generates ideas about probable rewards and punishments.

Reactions from others are used to develop implicit rules that are applied to future in similar situation. As a result, learning often occurs through direct experience, with individuals learning guidelines for many behavior forms that are more complex than the specific action observed. Consequently, modeling and reinforcement are two of the most important processes in learning aggressive behavior.

Consequently, learning often occurs through interactions with significant others. Children are more likely to imitate when they strongly identify with person, when this person is familiar and demonstrates approval.

It focus on personality disorders and early experiences that increase the risk of violent behaviour. Their study found that whether male or female, aggressive people share a cluster of traits, including high rates of suspicion and jealousy, sudden and drastic mood swings, poor self-control, and higher than average rates of approval of violence and aggression.

They also argue that antisocial men exhibit two distinct types of interpersonal aggression: It should be noted that many personality dysfunctions, for example low impulse control, are not considered pathological but rather a the characteristics forms and stages of domestic violence disorder. In series of studies he described associated psychological features of abusiveness that clustered around Oldham et al. Profile of an abuser correlate with the Cluster B personality disorders: Anti-Social Personality a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, lack of empathyBorderline Personality a pervasive pattern of instability in relationships, self-image, identity, behavior and affects often leading to self-harm and impulsivityand Narcissistic Personality a pervasive pattern of grandiosity need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.

These disorders display characteristics that involve grandiose delusions and a self inflated sense of importance which are critical behaviors for an abuser to have in order to maintain strict and severe control over their victim.

The abuser also needs to have a very low affect and low sense of empathy so that they do not have remorse for the abuse and actions they are inflicting on their victim. They deny the violence and abuse or rationalize it and tend to use such types of defenses: You are just imagining it. You want to hurt mealloplastic defense It was your fault, your behavior provoked me into such reactionsaltruistic defense I did it for you, in your best interests!

Perpetrators are usually concerned with their reputation and image in the community — among neighbors, colleagues, co-workers, bosses, friends, extended family, and therefore they use in the public the specific forms of denial: They live in rural areas, urban cities, subsidized housing projects, and in gated communities.

In general, domestic violence affected largely women, children of both sexes, but men are also raped and experience domestic violence. On the delusion that arises around this question inside our heads have recently exposed Dutton and White: The stereotype invoked when one mentions domestic violence is a bulling, domineering man who is hyper-reactive to jealousy and has a drinking problem. The gender paradigm stereotype also holds that female violence is less serious, only what Johnson calls common couple violence.

In fact, the data again say something else. It was simply that easier research was driven by paradigm that avoided asking the right question of men.

Cycle of abuse

When these questions are asked, the results are surprising. An emergency clinic in Philadelphia found that 12,6 per cent of all male patients over thirteen week period were victims of domestic violence. Data from their research shown that women can be equally violent or display even more frequent violent acts than men toward partners: They are also treated more harshly by criminal justice system.

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Brown found that in case where only the male partner was injured, the female was charged in 60. In no-injury cases, the male was charged 52. Brown also found that women were more likely to have used weapons and caused injuries and also to have received more serious charges more than twice as likely to be charged with aggravated assault or assault with a weaponand that those who were prosecuted tended to have inflicted higher levels of injury against their victim than prosecuted men and, as with arrested women, were more likely than men to have used weapons.

In severe injury cases, 71. The low percentage of women found guilty was due to witness problems few men being willing to testify. He identifies several reasons and one of them is dilemma because they are socialized to be strong, physically and emotionally, to be provider, especially women and children. So they are early trained to suppress their fear and pain and have later difficulty in expressing emotions because they are aware that patriarchal society and men in general do not want view males as victims to be the characteristics forms and stages of domestic violence, to be weak, to be unmanly because it means be a wimp.

Other reasons he found in feminism and gender politics. In practice, he can also be afraid that if he was to report his wife to the the characteristics forms and stages of domestic violence, the police would not take his allegation seriously. Many researchers have found a link between childhood experiences of aggression behind the domestic walls and violence and abuse in adulthood. Phenomenon was called as intergenerational transmission of violence.

Important part of such process is learning through modeling. One is in the potential different effects of experiencing aggression during childhood. Another element of complexity lies in whether one who grows up in a violent home is at risk for becoming a perpetrator or a victim of spouse abuse as some studies have provided empirical support for the notion that growing up in an aggressive family increases the probability of being a victim of spouse abuse, whereas other studies have provided support for the notion that growing up in an aggressive home increases the probability of being a perpetrator of spouse abuse.

A third element of complexity relates to gender. Recently, theorists have suggested that the intergenerational transmission of violence may operate differently for men and women.

The need for a gender sensitive application of the intergenerational transmission of violence theory has been supported empirically in a number of studies. Contradictory findings have emerged from gender-sensitive research examining the intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Intimate partnership violence and battering as its frequently part, has specific, long-term negative health consequences for victims, even after the abuse has ended. Measures of the coercive control include verbal threats, financial control, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and threats against the children, belongings, or pets.

Negative effects can manifest as poor health status, poor quality of life, and high use of health services. It is also associated with overuse of health services. Battering in intimate partnership violence is also one of the most common causes of injury in women. An injuries, fear, and stress can result in chronic health problems as chronic pain by headache, back pain.

This was found also as past, in childhood experiencing sexual abuse, or both.

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The combination of physical and sexual abuse that characterizes at least 40-45 per cent group of battered women puts these women at an even higher risk for health problems than women only physical assaulted. Physical intimate partner violence was found to be correlated to hearing loss, angina, with cardiovascular problems, gastric reflux, and bladder or kidney infections.

It was found also higher level of emotional distress, thoughts, or attempts of suicide among women who had ever experienced physical or sexual violence than those who had not. In addition, intimate partnership violence has also been linked with: His meta analysis also found that 18. At this point it should be noted that different authors mention slightly different major forms of psychological abusive behavior.

Osofsky notes that several studies have found that 60-75 per cent families in which a woman is battered, children are also battered.

Domestic violence and its phases

She presents the characteristics forms and stages of domestic violence his research data and states that in homes where domestic violence occur children are physically abused and neglected at the rate 15 times higher than is national average. Such children are excessive irritable, show immature behavior patterns, sleep disturbances, emotional distress, fears of being alone and regression in toiling and language.

Campbell and Lewandowski cite the research results of Slusi, who has been found that violence becomes traumatic when victim does not have ability to consent or dissent and are passive observer with feeling of helplessness and hopelessness. They also highlight the research of Mc Closky et al.

Later controlled studies indicated cognitive and emotional responses such as higher level of internalizing anxiety, social withdrawal, depressionfewer interests and social activities, preoccupation with physical aggression, withdrawal and suicidal ideation; behavioral disorders aggressiveness, hyperactivity, conduct problemsreduced social competence, school problems, truancy, bulling, excessive screaming, clinging behaviors, speech disorders; physical symptoms headache, bed wetting, disturbed sleeping, vomiting, failure to thrive, diarrhea.

What is in a relationship between the sexes change? Especially, as we know, that violence in relationship between men and women has always existed, and has been well evidenced by many literary works in the past from the ancient Greek tragedies forward?

Have the traditional gender roles significantly altered and imbalance of power and control in relationship produces new sources of tension between men and women? Or is a just now possible to express experience, which has been previously strictly retained behind domestic walls?

Is its extent and severity actually in increase, and it raised in modern society from a complex of factor interactions?

Due to consequently high costs and unfavorable economic effects they have been declared as a political problem which demands appropriate solutions. But, despite that the intimate partnership violence and abuse become today a major public health problem and one of the most widespread violators of the human rights, some found that this problem is still under-acknowledged in all European countries, as it is throughout the world.