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The influence of the deregulated tele communication

Job creation and economic growth In 61 of the 75 texts analyzed, proponents of state-level VoIP deregulation measures claimed that less oversight creates jobs and grows the economy. Similarly, Georgia called its law the Telecommunications Jobs Act — even though its key provisions bar state regulators from exercising authority over broadband, VoIP, or wireless services.

Topoi, or standard arguments made during discourse, represent premises that are taken for granted as self-evident and as sufficient reasons to accept a conclusion van Dijk, 2000. Within the VoIP deregulation debate, CDA highlights the process by which the more powerful group the influence of the deregulated tele communication able to define an outcome and, subsequently, influence policy.

Both industry stakeholders and legislators presented economic growth as if it were a commonsense consequence of VoIP deregulation. They pinpointed unemployment and low-paying jobs as issues that resonated with the public.

In fact, Americans consistently cite the economy as the most pressing challenge facing the country Gallup, 2016. The telecommunications industry capitalized on economic anxiety by offering VoIP deregulation as one solution to genuine challenges such as wage stagnation and joblessness. However, real-life events contradict this industry claim.

  • The data collected was analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics, Gross margin and Net return analysis and multiple regression analysis;
  • Project Vote Smart, 2013;
  • Can the latest efforts to regulate voice over Internet protocol be stopped?

Verizon sold off its entire wired network and stopped providing telephone service in four states where lawmakers enacted VoIP deregulation. Since 2008, Verizon has shed more than 30,000 jobs to boost profits of its landline business Davidson, 2014.

  • This analysis highlights the need to question policy paradigms and, potentially, shift the terms of debate;
  • In 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission PUC 2013 began investigating whether Comcast breached state law by publishing contact information for 74,000 phone subscribers who paid the company to ensure their numbers would remain unlisted;
  • In these scenarios, the telecommunications industry used anti-regulatory discourse to help maintain the status quo, as well as to influence future developments.

Since the 1980s, the U. But economists have never established a link between regulation and increased unemployment Shapiro, 2011. When the National Federation of Independent Businesses 2011 surveyed small businesses, just 14 percent of respondents cited regulation as their biggest problem. Lax oversight of Wall Street banks — not too much regulation — is widely blamed for the recent U. Regardless, by consistently associating VoIP deregulation with job creation, proponents of the policy used their dominant position and authority to exploit a pervasive belief that the private sector is more capable and effective than government.

Effectively, some voices are censored, certain opinions are never heard, and particular perspectives ignored. This analysis found that both print and broadcast outlets routinely reported industry claims of consumer benefits verbatim, while devoting minimal space or, in some cases, no space to concerns about weakened oversight.

The Herald-Leader did not grant equal space to the Kentucky Resources Council 2013which concluded that deregulation could cause low-income and rural residents to lose access to basic, stand-alone telephone service.

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The telecommunications industry capitalized on its wealth and political power by creating organizations meant to sound like consumer advocacy groups, which protect the interests of the public.

While people generally associate lobbying with self-interest pursuits and back-door deals Boldt, 2012they typically associate nonprofit organizations with positive contributions to society. A close reading of relevant discourses found that the telecom industry often coupled assurances of consumer benefits with promises of innovation. In reality, investment in the telecommunications sector is no weaker in states retaining PUC oversight Progressive States Network, 2012.

The contextual model van Dijk, 1993 of CDA recognizes that commonly shared opinions and knowledge exist in each society. In the United States, the term innovation is culturally associated with creating novel or better products, or with breakthrough ideas.

Historically, Americans have considered innovation a key aspect of national identity. During the Cold War, both the United States and Russia used technological progress to assert dominance — from satellite equipment capable of spying on other countries, to space exploration.

Americans are proud of U. Additionally, CDA analyzes sociocultural practice, or the set of wider social and cultural discourses that surround a text Fairclough, 1995.

Telecommunication: Local Deregulation has Positive Effects

A discursive technique known as linkages assists the audience in connecting concepts and claims. In this example, logical connectors are used to establish clear and consistent authority regarding the positive impacts of VoIP deregulation.

In at least one state where VoIP deregulation has already occurred, industry lobbying contradicts claims of consumer protection. In 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission PUC 2013 began investigating whether Comcast breached state law by publishing contact information for 74,000 phone subscribers who paid the company to ensure their numbers would remain unlisted. As Fairclough and Wodak 1997 note, discourse is socially constitutive and socially conditioned.

In these scenarios, the telecommunications industry used anti-regulatory discourse to help maintain the status quo, as well as to influence future developments. An open Internet and broadband connectivity In an attempt to defuse opponent discourses, dominant groups may strategically adopt phrases used by their adversaries van Dijk, 2003. This analysis of relevant discourses identified 30 instances of the telecom industry conflating VoIP deregulation with an open Internet, despite that the two concepts are diametrically opposed [ 12 ].

  1. However, real-life events contradict this industry claim.
  2. Specifically, deregulation proponents framed less government oversight as a catalyst for job creation; technological innovation; consumer protection; digital equity; and, modernization. Ifo's researchers show that areas with deregulation have an average of 0.
  3. As the findings demonstrate, these frames made their way into state laws and pending legislation throughout the country. The study examined employment generation through the deregulated telecommunication sector.
  4. In at least one state where VoIP deregulation has already occurred, industry lobbying contradicts claims of consumer protection. Citizens for a Digital Future, 2010.
  5. In order not to falsely attribute the planned and imminent extension of connections to deregulation, Falck and Fabritz examined the 120 areas that were already deregulated in 2008 even more closely, as these areas were deregulated without any further network extension plans.

The Federalist Society https: The terms play on concepts of social mobility, individual autonomy, and achievement inherent to the fabled American dream. Open Internet principles, themselves, are associated with the Constitutional guarantee of free speech and democracy Karr, 2009. Close readings of relevant texts also identified a pattern of discursive claims associating VoIP deregulation with digital inclusion.

Deregulation creates investment incentives

Citizens for a Digital Future placed ads and editorials across Kentucky media asserting that SB 88 would close the digital divide Gerdemann, 2013. Industry discourse suggested that VoIP deregulation would enable people to gain access to the positive externalities associated with connectivity, such as better jobs, a higher standard of living, and even stronger social ties.

The phrase modernization tends to be associated with superiority, such as countries that are wealthy and powerful Lerner, 1958; Shramm, 1964; Inglehart, 1997.

Modernization is also frequently linked to transformation and progress. In state after state, lobbyists and lawmakers adopted policy frames equating these concepts with VoIP deregulation. Conclusion This study used critical discourse analysis CDA to examine discursive claims made by proponents of state-level VoIP deregulation. Frame analysis, in particular, was useful for revealing dominant messages conveyed by the telecommunications industry, and for identifying these messages as part of a broader pattern of inequality and dominant positioning.

This research demonstrates how telecommunications providers and lawmakers consistently associated the deregulation of phone and broadband services with four widely supported political economic goals. Specifically, deregulation proponents framed less government oversight as a catalyst for job creation; technological innovation; consumer protection; digital equity; and, modernization. They disseminated this discourse in press releases, on social media, during interviews with the mainstream media, in editorials, and while testifying before legislative committees.

As the findings demonstrate, these frames made their way into state laws and pending legislation throughout the country.

Provisions in many bills explicitly reference consumer protection, broadband access, job creation, innovation, and modernization as justification for weakening state oversight of VoIP and IP-enabled services.

The deregulation proponents making these claims provide little, if any, evidence to support them. The findings of this paper have implications for future research on telecommunications policy debates. Researchers could examine discursive claims dominating a host of contested telecommunications policy issues, such as net neutrality, media consolidation, and online privacy. Struggles over how to define social challenges through policy frames are at the heart of the political process, and powerful stakeholders will naturally strive to define conflicts in ways that advance their ideological positions Murphy and Maynard, 2000.

This analysis highlights the need to question policy paradigms and, potentially, shift the terms of debate. Her research focuses on issues related to telecommunications law and policy. It remains a matter of substantial expertise and difficulty to draw a line between regulated time division multiplex TDM services and unregulated IP services.

Both are ways of dividing and transmitting voice messages and other data in small sets of digital information. Hajer and Versteeg, 2005, pp. Van Dijk, 2000, p. Nourse and Schacter, 2002, p. Van Dijk, 2001, p. Van Dijk, 1993, p. On 14 January 2014, the D.

Circuit issued its decision in Verizon v. Therefore, the reality of net neutrality is that it requires some regulation. Specifically, net neutrality requires a return to the common carrier regime that existed until 2002, and which enabled the existing Internet.

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An introduction for social scientists. Kentucky Resources Council, 2013. Discourse and the influence of the deregulated tele communication dynamics. The passing of traditional society: Modernizing the Middle East. Gazette 29 Marchat http: Michigan Chambers of Commerce, 2011. National Federation of Independent Businesses, 2011.

North Shore Interactive Journal, 2013. Progressive States Network, 2012. Project Vote Smart, 2013. Ung22JTk-wEaccessed 12 December 2017. The stages of economic growth, a non-Communist manifesto. Can the latest efforts to regulate voice over Internet protocol be stopped? Utility Reform Network, 2013. United for an Open Internet, 2015. Methods of critical discourse analysis. Handbook of discourse analysis. Sage, volume 2, pp.