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The life and times of muhammad ali jinnah

Jinnah family Portrait of Jinnah's father, Jinnahbhai Poonja Jinnah's given name at birth was Mahomedali, [a] and he was born most likely in 1876, [b] to Jinnahbhai Poonja and his wife Mithibai, in a rented apartment on the second floor of Wazir Mansion near Karachi, [5] now in SindhPakistan but then within the Bombay Presidency of British India.

Jinnah's family was from a Gujarati Ismaili background, though Jinnah later followed the Twelver Shi'a teachings, [6] [7] [8] [9] After his death, his relatives and other witnesses claimed that he had converted in later life to the Sunni sect.

  1. She hinted her intentions but did not get a favorable response.
  2. For a few years he kept himself aloof from the main political movements. Indeed, the Muslim League was a house divided against itself.
  3. There were widespread protests in India.
  4. Four years later he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council—the beginning of a long and distinguished parliamentary career.

His religion at the time of his death was disputed in multiple court cases. They had the life and times of muhammad ali jinnah to Karachi in 1875, having married before their departure. Karachi was then enjoying an economic boom: The parents were native Gujarati speakers, and the children also came to speak Kutchi and English. In his later years and especially after his death, a large number of stories about the boyhood of Pakistan's founder were circulated: His official biographer, Hector Bolithowriting in 1954, interviewed surviving boyhood associates, and obtained a tale that the young Jinnah discouraged other children from playing marbles in the dust, urging them to rise up, keep their hands and clothes clean, and play cricket instead.

Jinnah's mother and first wife both died during his absence in England. In 1893, the Jinnahbhai family moved to Bombay. The aspiring barrister joined Lincoln's Innlater stating that the reason he chose Lincoln's over the other Inns of Court was that over the main entrance to Lincoln's Inn were the names of the world's great lawgivers, including Muhammad.

Jinnah's biographer Stanley Wolpert notes that there is no such inscription, but inside is a mural showing Muhammad and other lawgivers, and speculates that Jinnah may have edited the story in his own mind to avoid mentioning a pictorial depiction which would be offensive to many Muslims.

To gain knowledge of the law, he followed an established barrister and learned from what he did, as well as from studying lawbooks.

This political education included exposure to the idea of the democratic nation, and progressive politics. Naoroji had become the first British Member of Parliament of Indian extraction shortly before Jinnah's arrival, triumphing with a majority of three votes in Finsbury Central. Jinnah listened to Naoroji's maiden speech in the House of Commons from the visitor's gallery.

Jinnah abandoned local garb for Western-style clothing, and throughout his life he was always impeccably dressed in public. He came to own over 200 suits, which he wore with heavily starched shirts with detachable collars, and as a barrister took pride in never wearing the same silk tie twice.

His first three years in the law, from 1897 to 1900, brought him few briefs. His first step towards a brighter career occurred when the acting Advocate General of Bombay, John Molesworth MacPherson, invited Jinnah to work from his chambers.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Dastoor, a Bombay presidency magistrateleft the post temporarily and Jinnah succeeded in getting the interim position. After his six-month appointment period, Jinnah was offered a permanent position on a 1,500 rupee per month salary. Jinnah politely declined the offer, stating that he planned to earn 1,500 rupees a day—a huge sum at that time—which he eventually did.

This controversy arose out of Bombay municipal elections, which Indians alleged were rigged by a "caucus" of Europeans to keep Sir Pherozeshah Mehta out of the council. Jinnah gained great esteem from leading the case for Sir Pherozeshah, himself a noted barrister. Although Jinnah did not win the Caucus Case, he posted a successful record, becoming well known for his advocacy and legal logic. Before Tilak unsuccessfully represented himself at trial, he engaged Jinnah in an attempt to secure his release on bail.

Jinnah did not succeed, but obtained an acquittal for Tilak when he was charged with sedition again in 1916. He was what God made him, a great pleader.

Mohammed Ali Jinnah

He had a sixth sense: That is where his talents lay. But he drove his points home—points chosen with exquisite selection—slow delivery, word by word. According to All Pakistan Labour Federation 's publication "Productive Role of Trade Unions and Industrial Relations", being a member of Legislative Assembly, Jinnah pleaded forcefully for rights of workers and struggled for getting a "living wage and fair conditions" for them [47]. He also played an important role in enactment of Trade Union act of 1926 which gave trade union movement legal cover to organize themselves [48].

Rising leader Further information: Indian independence movement and Pakistan movement Jinnah in 1910 In 1857, many Indians had risen in revolt against British rule. In the aftermath of the conflict, some Anglo-Indians, as well as Indians in Britain, called for greater self-government for the subcontinent, resulting in the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.

Most founding members had been educated in Britain, and were content with the minimal reform efforts being made by the government.

Jinnah began political life by attending the Congress's twentieth annual meeting, in Bombay in December 1904.

  • He said that our principle of separate electorates was dividing the nation against itself;
  • The League reluctantly accepted the scheme, though expressing reservations about the weak parliament;
  • Karachi was then enjoying an economic boom;
  • He said, 'I wrote to them that law was a lingering profession where success was uncertain; a stage career was much better, and it gave me a good start, and that I would now be independent and not bother them with grants of money at all;
  • Nevertheless, he completed his formal studies and also made a study of the British political system , frequently visiting the House of Commons;
  • Lahore Resolution The leaders of the Muslim League, 1940.

The Aga Khan later wrote that it was "freakishly ironic" that Jinnah, who would lead the League to independence, "came out in bitter hostility toward all that I and my friends had done. He said that our principle of separate electorates was dividing the nation against itself. He was a compromise candidate when two older, better-known Muslims who were seeking the post deadlocked.

The council, which had been expanded to 60 members as part of reforms enacted by Minto, recommended legislation to the Viceroy. Only officials could vote in the council; non-official members, such as Jinnah, had no vote. Throughout his legal career, Jinnah practised probate law with many clients from India's nobilityand in 1911 introduced the Wakf Validation Act to place Muslim religious trusts on a sound legal footing under British Indian law.

  • The couple had one daughter, Dina, but the marriage proved an unhappy one, and Jinnah and Rutti soon separated;
  • He took a room as houseguest in a modest three-story house at 35 Russell Road in Kensington;
  • He continued to borrow ideas "directly from Iqbal—including his thoughts on Muslim unity, on Islamic ideals of liberty, justice and equality, on economics, and even on practices such as prayers";
  • These Muslims, supported by Gandhi, sought retention of the Ottoman caliphate , which supplied spiritual leadership to many Muslims.

Two years later, the measure passed, the first act sponsored by non-officials to pass the council and be enacted by the Viceroy. He joined the following year, although he remained a member of the Congress as well and stressed that League membership took second priority to the "greater national cause" of an independent India.

  • See Article History Alternative Title;
  • Mehta suggested that two of his chosen disciples be sent to London as Congress deputies to observe the political arena at that time;
  • Gandhi's proposal gained broad Hindu support, and was also attractive to many Muslims of the Khilafat faction.

In April 1913, he again went to Britain, with Gokhale, to meet with officials on behalf of the Congress. Gokhale, a Hindu, later the life and times of muhammad ali jinnah that Jinnah "has true stuff in him, and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu—Muslim Unity".

By coincidence, he was in Britain at the same time as a man who would become a great political rival of his, Mohandas Gandhia Hindu lawyer who had become well known for advocating satyagrahanon-violent non-cooperation, while in South Africa.

Jinnah attended a reception for Gandhi, and returned home to India in January 1915. Nevertheless, Jinnah worked to bring the Congress and League together. In 1916, with Jinnah now president of the Muslim League, the two organisations signed the Lucknow Pactsetting quotas for Muslim and Hindu representation in the various provinces.

Although the pact was never fully implemented, its signing ushered in a period of co-operation between the Congress and the League. Along with political leaders Annie Besant and Tilak, Jinnah demanded " home rule " for India—the status of a self-governing dominion in the Empire similar to Canada, New Zealand and Australia, although, with the war, Britain's politicians were not interested in considering Indian constitutional reform. British Cabinet minister Edwin Montagu recalled Jinnah in his memoirs, "young, perfectly mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecticsand insistent on the whole of his scheme".

She was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petitand was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islamadopting though never using the name Maryam Jinnah, resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society. The couple's only child, daughter Dinawas born on 15 August 1919. There was unrest across India, which worsened after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsarin which British troops fired upon a protest meeting, killing hundreds.

In the wake of Amritsar, Gandhi, who had returned to India and become a widely respected leader and highly influential in the Congress, called for satyagraha against the British.

Gandhi's proposal gained broad Hindu support, and was the life and times of muhammad ali jinnah attractive to many Muslims of the Khilafat faction. These Muslims, supported by Gandhi, sought retention of the Ottoman caliphatewhich supplied spiritual leadership to many Muslims.

The caliph was the Ottoman Emperorwho would be deprived of both offices following his nation's defeat in the First World War.

Gandhi had achieved considerable popularity among Muslims because of his work during the war on behalf of killed or imprisoned Muslims. Gandhi's local style of leadership gained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah criticised Gandhi's Khilafat advocacy, which he saw as an endorsement of religious zealotry.

He opposed Gandhi, but the tide of Indian opinion was against him. At the 1920 session of the Congress in NagpurJinnah was shouted down by the delegates, who passed Gandhi's proposal, pledging satyagraha until India was independent.

  1. He could not secure adoption of the Fourteen Points, as the League meeting in Delhi at which he hoped to gain a vote instead dissolved into chaotic argument.
  2. Events began to move fast.
  3. According to All Pakistan Labour Federation 's publication "Productive Role of Trade Unions and Industrial Relations", being a member of Legislative Assembly, Jinnah pleaded forcefully for rights of workers and struggled for getting a "living wage and fair conditions" for them [47].

Jinnah did not attend the subsequent League meeting, held in the same city, which passed a similar resolution. Because of the action of the Congress in endorsing Gandhi's campaign, Jinnah resigned from it, leaving all positions except in the Muslim League. Jinnah sought alternative political ideas, and contemplated organising a new political party as a rival to the Congress. He showed much skill as a parliamentarian, organising many Indian members to work with the Swaraj Partyand continued to press demands for full responsible government.

In 1925, as recognition for his legislative activities, he was offered a knighthood by Lord Readingwho was retiring from the Viceroyalty. The review began two years early as Baldwin feared he would lose the next election which he did, in 1929.

Entry into politics

The Cabinet was influenced by minister Winston Churchillwho strongly opposed self-government for India, and members hoped that by having the commission appointed early, the policies for India which they favoured would survive their government. A minority of Muslims, though, withdrew from the League, choosing to welcome the Simon Commission and repudiating Jinnah.

Most members of the League's executive council remained loyal to Jinnah, attending the League meeting in December 1927 and January 1928 which confirmed him as the League's permanent president.

At that session, Jinnah told the delegates that "A constitutional war has been declared on Great Britain. Negotiations for a settlement are not to come from our side. By appointing an exclusively white Commission, [ Secretary of State for India ] Lord Birkenhead has declared our unfitness for self-government. Jinnah, though he believed separate electorates, based on religion, necessary to ensure Muslims had a voice in the government, was willing to compromise on this point, but talks between the two parties failed.

He put forth proposals that he hoped might satisfy a broad range of Muslims and reunite the League, calling for mandatory representation for Muslims in legislatures and cabinets.

These became known as his Fourteen Points. He could not secure adoption of the Fourteen Points, as the League meeting in Delhi at which he hoped to gain a vote instead dissolved into chaotic argument. MacDonald desired a conference of Indian and British leaders in London to discuss India's future, a course of action supported by Jinnah. Three Round Table Conferences followed over as many years, none of which resulted in a settlement.

Jinnah was a delegate to the first two conferences, but was not invited to the last. His biographers disagree over why he remained so long in Britain—Wolpert asserts that had Jinnah been made a Law Lordhe would have stayed for life, and that Jinnah alternatively sought a parliamentary seat.

From then on, Muhammad Jinnah would receive personal care and support from her as he aged and began to suffer from the lung ailments which would kill him.

She lived and travelled with him, and became a close advisor. Muhammad Jinnah's daughter, Dina, was educated in England and India. Jinnah later became estranged from Dina after she decided to marry a Christian, Neville Wadia from a prominent Parsi business family. Jinnah continued to correspond cordially with his daughter, but their personal relationship was strained, and she did not come to Pakistan in his lifetime, but only for his funeral.

In 1933, Indian Muslims, especially from the United Provincesbegan to urge Jinnah to return and take up again his leadership of the Muslim League, an organisation which had fallen into inactivity. At Jinnah's request, Liaquat discussed the return with a large number of Muslim politicians and confirmed his recommendation to Jinnah.

Full power remained in the hands of the Viceroy, however, who could dissolve legislatures the life and times of muhammad ali jinnah rule by decree. The League reluctantly accepted the scheme, though expressing reservations about the weak parliament. The Congress was much better prepared for the provincial elections in 1937and the League failed to win a majority even of the Muslim seats in any of the provinces where members of that faith held a majority.