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The robot and his launching manipulator powered by a motor and channel

Graphic visualizers of results. Trajectory generation With the purpose of testing the functionality and versatility of the robot, a new graphic interface was designed, which enables the programming of the test trajectories that the robot must follow. That interface allows for programming ten steps per joint, and each step consists of an initial pause; a smooth movement by means of a cubic polynomial curve between two points; and a final pause.

Figure 9 shows the system's graphic interface, which is composed of the following parts: Trajectory programming boxes per joint that allow programming ten sequential steps, from top to bottom. Button that allows taking the robot to the default initial position.

Button that allows visualizing the curves of programmed trajectories, producing a graph. Button that allows starting the execution of the Simulink model in charge of controlling the robot. Button that allows stopping the execution of the Simulink model in charge of controlling the robot.

  • A mechanical unit can be activated or deactivated to make it safe when, for example, manually changing a workpiece located on the unit;
  • After service, the robot is ordered to return to the programmed path and continue program execution;
  • For your convenience, the robot saves the used path, program data and configuration parameters so that the program can easily be restarted from where you left off;
  • Incremental jogging can be used to position the robot with high precision, since the robot moves a short distance each time the joystick is moved;
  • When such an input is set, the trap routine starts executing;
  • The message includes the reason for the fault and suggests recovery action.

They allow enabling or disabling the use of the clamp as well as the input of the clamping force level of the clamp. The established format is the one shown below: New set point; Td: Initial pause time; Tm: The time parameters are incremental and not absolute, so they must fulfill conditions 2 and 3.

The curve generated by the application is cubic polynomial, which exhibits the advantage of providing a smooth movement at the joint.

The movement starts at low speed and increases progressively; then, on approaching the objective point, the speed is reduced smoothly. The programming of the clamp differs considerably from the programming of trajectories because its operating principle is not based on the position, but on the "open" or "close" states. The graph generated by the application for programming the operation of the clamp shows both states as a function of time, as seen in Figure 11.

The GUI application generates a general graph that includes the trajectories of the six actuators involved, which can have different execution times.

  • Tests and results The tests conducted with the robot consisted in the application of steps and trajectories to the joints at different speeds, R-1, R-2 and P-3 independently feedback control, and finally a test comprising a programmed task in which simultaneous functioning of all the joints is involved;
  • Following this, normal program execution resumes.

Thus, the time at which the curves are generated and graphed is the same for all the actuators and corresponds to the longest programmed time. Tests and results The tests conducted with the robot consisted in the application of steps and trajectories to the joints at different speeds, R-1, R-2 and P-3 independently feedback control, and finally a test comprising a programmed task in which simultaneous functioning of all the joints is involved.

This kind of signal is the one that generates the most abrupt response of the link, because at the beginning of the movement the position error is very large, so the controller makes the actuator move at high speeds that depend on the amplitude of that step.

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In general, the robot is not used to follow stepwise trajectories because they are very abrupt especially at the beginning of the movementbut they serve to verify the efficacy of the designed and implemented controllers.

Therefore, it is important to evaluate the performance of the robot by dealing with cubic polynomial trajectories, which allow the robot to start and finish the movements smoothly. Thanks to this, the follow-up of these types of trajectories is used very widely in real applications.

R-2 rotational joint Now the same stepwise tests Fig. P-3 prismatic joint The tests performed on this joint are similar to the previous ones, with the difference that now three steps and three curves are programmed in each case.

Figures 18 - 20 show in green the reference to be followed and in blue the performance of the P-3 prismatic joint. It consists in the robot going to fetch an object located in a specific place, hold it and then transfer it to another place, to finally return to the initial position.

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The trajectories generated for joints R-4, R-5 and the clamp are not graphed, because they are executed from the internal loop that every servomotor has. Figure 22 shows a picture of the implemented robot. Conclusions A SCARA manipulator with 6 DOF was designed and implemented, and it now constitutes a physical platform on which a variety of control techniques can be tested and studied.

The development of the PC-Controller's software, which is the same as the electronic interface, despite the complexity of its design and implementation, allowed an optimum functioning of the complete system. This software, among other functions, also enables the generation of multiple trajectories for the robot. Mechanical, electronic, and control systems could be integrated satisfactorily, yielding excellent results, materialized in a robot.

The morphology chosen for the design and implementation of the robot allowed for carrying out numerous demonstrations and tasks, which were programmed simply and rapidly from an intuitive graphic interface created especially for that purpose. Conflict of interest The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. A kinematic analysis and evaluation of planar robots designed from optimally fault-tolerant Jacobins.

Design and construction of a didactic 3-dof parallel links robot station with a 1-dof gripper. Journal of Applied Research and Technology. Using object's contour, form and depth to embed recognition capability into industrial robots. Neural Computing and Applications. Springer handbook of robotics. Robust control of robots. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems. Intelligent robotics and applications. Springer International Publishing; 2014. Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics.