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Unit ii studyguide world history 102 byzantine

It was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. After a Roman magistrate served his term in office, it usually was followed with automatic appointment to the Senate.

As the Greeks were still seen as the masters in this field, as in philosophy and most sciences, the leading Roman families often either sent their sons to study these things under a famous master in Greece as was the case with the young Julius Caesaror engaged a Greek teacher under pay or as a slave.

This form of monument was probably invented by the Romans, who built them throughout the empire. The term has meanings in theology, where it refers to a belief, and in art, where it refers to a genre. In theology, apotheosis refers to the idea that an individual has been raised to godlike stature.

In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject a figure, group, locale, motif, convention or melody in a particularly grand or exalted manner. The school rejected determinism and advocated hedonism pleasure as the highest goodbut of a restrained kind: The school taught that virtue, the highest good, is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine Reason also identified with Fate and Providence that governs nature, and are unit ii studyguide world history 102 byzantine to the vicissitudes of fortune and to pleasure and pain.

Archaic Smile

Water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall.

The term was also used to mean a city block. Materials for tesserae were obtained from local sources of natural stone, with the additions of cut brick, tile and pottery creating colored shades of, predominantly, blue, black, red, white and yellow. Any chamber used as a burial place is a catacomb, although the word is most commonly associated with the Roman Empire.

A basilica is built with several parallel aisles separated by rows of columns, ending in a semicircular structure, the apse. Saint Peter's Basilica is the church of the Vatican in Rome.

In traditional Western churches it is rectangular, separated from the chancel by a step or rail, and from adjacent aisles by pillars. It is clear of the roofs of the aisles and admits light to the central parts of the building.

It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire. Though especially associated with "portrait" style images concentrating on one or two main figures, the term is also used for most religious images in a variety of artistic media produced by Eastern Christianity, including narrative scenes.

Roman domes are found in baths, villas, palaces, and tombs.

  • For millions, however, the Industrial Revolution brought terrible living conditions and dangerous work in smoke-belching factories;
  • They are customarily hemispherical in shape and partially or totally concealed on the exterior;
  • New machines allowed manufacturers to produce goods quickly and efficiently.

Oculi are common features. They are customarily hemispherical in shape and partially or totally concealed on the exterior. To buttress the horizontal thrusts of a large hemispherical masonry dome, the supporting walls were built up beyond the base to at least the haunches of the dome, and the dome was then also sometimes covered with a conical or polygonal roof.

Domes reached monumental size in the Roman Imperial period. Roman baths played a leading role in the development of domed construction in general, and monumental domes in particular. He was on familiar terms with the Julio-Claudian dynasty, advising Augustus's grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, as a young man not long before 14 AD in a letter to take up the writing of history.

Livy and Augustus's wife, Livia, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero.

HST102: World History (Core)

Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.

He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored.

  • Before the Great War ended, a Communist revolution transformed Russia;
  • Domes reached monumental size in the Roman Imperial period.

Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources.

Exam 3 - Rome and Byzantium (Study Guide) Flashcards Preview

Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus Anglicized as Octavian. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.

Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.

He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis "First Citizen of the State". The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and one year-long civil war over the imperial succession.

AP World History Unit 3 pt. 1 Study Guide Flashcards

Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania.

He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He may have died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son also stepson and former son-in-law Tiberius.

She was the mother of the emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the emperor Claudius, paternal great-grandmother of the emperor Caligula, and maternal great-great-grandmother of the emperor Nero.

She was deified by Claudius who acknowledged her title of Augusta.