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What happens to children when both parents are employed

Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Of the nation's 82.

The Effects of the Mother's Employment on the Family and the Child

These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are collected as part of the Current Population Survey CPSa monthly survey of about 60,000 households. Data in this release are annual averages. Families are classified either as married- couple families or as families maintained by women or men without spouses present.

Unless otherwise noted, families include those with and without children under age 18.

For further information, see the Technical Note in this news release. Families and Unemployment The number of families with at least one member unemployed decreased by 557,000 to 4. The proportion of families with an unemployed person declined by 0. In 2017, this proportion was down for White 5.

  • In general, findings indicate that full-time employed mothers spend less time with their infants and preschoolers than part-time and nonemployed mothers, but this effect diminishes with maternal education and with the age of the child;
  • For example, the higher use of authoritative controls by employed mothers in the working class, a style in which the child is given reasons and explanations, was related to their children's higher academic performance, and the more punitive style of the homemakers predicted conduct problems in school;
  • Thus, it is possible, that mothers who elect to stay home and avoid employment, may be mothers who are particularly committed to obedience and that this difference may not only be a function of employment status but also a precursor.

Black and Hispanic families remained more likely to have an unemployed member in 2017 than White or Asian families. Just over two-thirds or 69.

The proportion of families with an unemployed member that had at least one family member working full time grew to 60. Black families with an unemployed member remained less likely to also have an employed family member 58. Among families with an unemployed family member, those maintained by women were less likely to also have an employed family member 49.

See tables 2 and 3.

Families and Employment In 2017, 80. Over the year, the likelihood of having an employed family member was about unchanged among White 80.

  • Data have been presented which support the validity of the Strange Situation measure as used in this study;
  • The finding that when mothers are employed, fathers are more active in household tasks and child care was reported in the 1950's and repeatedly through the years;
  • For example, the higher use of authoritative controls by employed mothers in the working class, a style in which the child is given reasons and explanations, was related to their children's higher academic performance, and the more punitive style of the homemakers predicted conduct problems in school;
  • The sample is a socio-economically heterogeneous one of third and fourth grade children and their families residing in a large industrial city in the Midwest;
  • In general, findings indicate that full-time employed mothers spend less time with their infants and preschoolers than part-time and nonemployed mothers, but this effect diminishes with maternal education and with the age of the child;
  • For working-class women, studies show that the satisfactions from employment are not from the job per se but from the increased social support and stimulation provided by co-workers, the marked advantages that their wages bring to their families, and the greater sense of control they feel over their lives.

The percentage of Black families having at least one family member employed increased by 0. In 2017, families maintained by women remained less likely to have an employed member 76. Among married-couple families, both the husband and wife were employed in 48. Families with Children In 2017, 33. Children are sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children living in the household who are under 18 years old.

Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related and unrelated children, and children not living in the household. At least one parent was employed in 90.

Among married-couple families with children, 96.

  1. These studies have looked at the quantity and quality of the mother-child interaction, the home environment, and the parent-child attachment relationship. These differences in parenting, in turn, related to a number of child outcomes.
  2. It was our most robust findings for the child outcome differences. See tables 2 and 3.
  3. In accommodation to the mother's employment, fathers take on a larger share of the household tasks and child care.
  4. In 2017, families maintained by women remained less likely to have an employed member 76. Sons and daughters of employed mothers have less traditional gender-role attitudes.

Among families with children, 84. Parents The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working or looking for work--for all women with children under age 18 was 71. Married mothers remained less likely to participate in the labor force, at 68. Other marital status includes persons who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as persons in same-sex marriages.

The unemployment rate for married mothers was also considerably lower than for mothers with other marital statuses--2. Mothers with young children are less likely to be in the labor force than those with older children. In 2017, the labor force participation rate of mothers with children under 6 years old, at 65.

Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Among mothers with children under 3 years old, the participation rate of married mothers was lower than the rate of mothers with other marital statuses-- 60. The unemployment rate of mothers who were married and had children under 3 years old, at 2.

See tables 5 and 6.

  • Neither does the mother's employment status nor the age of the child when the mother resumed work;
  • The father's role was a major variable in the Michigan study and a clear link was shown to daughters' better academic performance and to their greater sense of efficacy.

The participation rate for married fathers, at 93. Married fathers also continued to have a lower unemployment rate 2. The jobless rate of fathers with other marital statuses declined by 1. Employed fathers remained more likely to work full time than employed mothers in 2017; 95. Among employed mothers, those with older children were somewhat more likely to work full time than those with younger children. Employed fathers with younger and older children were about equally likely to work full time.