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A brief essay on why do i need financially ne

Abstract This article suggests that while crime and deviance are subject to the dynamics of global socio-economic-political events, the field of criminology can have a marked, positive impact in this realm.

Criminology is not a mature science at this point, and we are not certain how to systematically respond to the crime problem. We lack accurate diagnostic instruments, a definitive body of knowledge, an understanding of cause and effect, and we do not possess a series of generally consistent treatment modalities.

In this context, criminologists are somewhat akin to physicians of the 18th century. The State of the Field of Criminology: A Brief Essay Preface While I believe crime and deviance to be important matters to study, it is impossible to divorce them from contemporary social and political events.

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Placed within such a framework, quite frankly our field of study verges on the inconsequential. Events are in the saddle and ride mankind, wrote Abraham Lincoln. One obvious global concern at present is that we seem to be sliding toward a clash of civilizations. While the current American presidential administration seems to have toned down of late, basic attitudes are clearly unchanged, and are surely reflective of the views of other religious zealots worldwide.

Fundamentalists of many faiths are convinced of their unilateral legitimacy and have a brief essay on why do i need financially ne themselves in a war against evil. In such a battle, ration and reason have no standing, and we need only consult the history of medieval Europe to visualize the result of this kind of thinking. It is in the best interests of contemporary civilization to see to it that voices of moderation are amplified, and as they are, the caustic cocktail of fundamentalism and fanaticism will give way to tolerance and stability.

Academic criminology has a role in this global mix, and has great potential to impact positively on social justice in a world-wide context. Introduction It is useful at times to pause and examine, to assess where we are and to consider where it is that we need to go. Academic criminology has perhaps a greater need than most disciplines to engage in such introspection, given its rather convoluted history.

We trace our intellectual roots to those who would classify themselves as philosophers Beccariaphysicians Lombrosolawyers Blackstonesociologists Durkheimpsychologists Garafalopractitioner politicians Vollmer. At the dawn of the 21st century, criminology has morphed into something different, something quite unique that tends to incorporate virtually all other disciplines in some fashion or another.

It is the purpose of this essay to examine the state of the field of criminology, and to propose a model for its future growth and development. Reduction of Crime I would suggest initially that I ascribe to the principles laid out by Emile Durkheim a century ago Durkheim, 1971.

I ascribe specifically to his constantly dictum - there will always be behavior that society defines as deviant, unacceptable, criminal.

In an aggregate, longitudinal context, we cannot reduce the extent of crime. Occasionally I hear a politician speak to the need of embarking upon one policy or another so as to Aeliminate crime.

We cannot eliminate crime anymore than a physician can eliminate death. And like a physician, criminologists and justice officials can develop preventative and curative responses that can impact positively upon the problems at hand. Let me draw another analogy. A financial planner takes personal economic portfolios, identifies various investment instruments that meet individual situations and needs, and incorporates them into each portfolio in personally unique ways so as to maximize returns.

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Our jobs as criminologists and justice professionals is much the same, but in the inverse. Within the distinctive socio-economic portfolio of each individual community or nation, we need to be about the business of identifying and incorporating various preventative and curative programs and responses that will minimize the impact of crime and deviance. This is what criminology is about. Not about eliminating crime in the aggregate, but rather minimizing the impact of crime; reducing the severity of the nature of crime.

From an aggregate, longitudinal context, the extent of crime may remain constant, but the seriousness of the nature of crime can be reduced.

For example, it is quite apparent to this author that if handgun controls were instituted in the United States, there would be fewer murders 1.

Fewer murders you might ask? That is a reduction in crime. To the contrary, the scenarios would play out like this. They could still kill, but a knife or club have a decidedly lower killing capability quotient, and the victim would be more likely to live.

Result - murder down, aggravated assault up, extent of crime the same, nature of seriousness decreased. This is what modern criminology should be about; finding programs and policies and procedures that can reduce the severity of the nature of crime. Reducing the Severity of Crime How do we reduce the severity of crime?

A comprehensive United States Congress sponsored study concluded that we simply do not know Sherman et al, 1997.

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Some programs and policies seem successful, others are clearly dismal failures, but we are not sure why, on either count. We have not been able to crack the cause and effect barrier with any degree of surety.

But what we have concluded, is that there is a procedural model that we now must embrace which will put us on the path to eventually be able to better answer those questions.

That model has three components: Incorporate systematic, evidence based evaluation into the fabric of a brief essay on why do i need financially ne field. It is my proposition that in time this strategic plan will, among other benefits, reduce the scope and extent of crime and corruption in every nation. This in turn will yield an enhanced opportunity for all, and particularly the developing nations, to secure external investment, realize increased economic stability, and eventually participate to a greater degree in the global economy see, Eskridge, 2003.

They are not full partners at present, but developing justice programs can, among other things that need to be done, can help them move in that direction.

Let me couple these initial observations with another that is to some extent a blinding flash of the obvious -- the Western concept of the rule of law, democratic traditions, the professional development of and the communal legitimization of institutions of public order have not been firmly established in most transitional and developing nations.

The problem is that social democracy and contemporary capitalism cannot be easily grafted onto many traditional societies. It is my proposition that justice education can help reverse this trend.

Over time, graduates from university justice education programs will gradually begin to fill justice system positions within their respective countries, which will slowly and steadily help to further professionalize justice operations within each country. Subsequently this more attuned and aware general populous will hold justice system personnel to a higher standard. The synergy of this proposal is that the justice system personnel who are going to be held more accountable by the more attuned public, will have had the academic background to draw upon which will give them more tools to be able to respond positively.

Justice officials will also be able to respond more positively to increased public demand due to perhaps the most important aspect of all; by embracing justice education, nations will benefits from an enhanced research capability.

The faculty and students of the university justice programs will engage in research activities that will produce a more complete knowledge base and shed further light on ways and means of improving justice system practices, programs and policies. Armed with these new tools and a more refined knowledge based, justice system personnel will be in a better position to perform their duties in accordance with heightened public demand. While justice education certainly has a place in the developed countries, its greatest impact would clearly be in the developing and transitional nations, and its adoption in those settings would help nudge these regions of the world further along the road towards the rule of law.

Transitional and developing nations typically have weak rule of law traditions and skeletal legal infrastructures. Justice education can assist in changing that. There have been some positive developments with respect to the international growth of academic criminology and justice education in the past decade. Courses and degree programs are now offered in many countries throughout the world.

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In addition, professional societies of criminology are emerging all across the globe. Academic criminology, which for many years has been rooted in American institutions, is now beginning to truly spread its wings. As a result, as Smith 2004: An Interdisciplinary Academic Model We need to continue to embrace an interdisciplinary perspective within academic criminology and justice education.

The hard sciences and medicine were two of the great success stories of the 20th Century. Conspicuously absent in this great leap, however, were the social and behavioral sciences. In a recent newspaper column, Allan Bloom see Bloom, 1987 criticized the academic social and behavioral sciences for being scholastically stagnant. He argues that there have been no new ground-breaking perspectives, no new paradigms, no theories of value or impact proffered for decades.

Compared with the hard sciences and medicine, the traditional disciplines of sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, history, political science are comatose, if not all-together dead. The primary reason he argues, is intellectual incest; an unwillingness to engage in cross-disciplinary and cross-national fertilization and exchange. There is, unarguably, some merit to his point. Sociologists train sociologists, psychologists teach psychologists, political scientists prepare political scientists, and the result is inevitably some measure of academic atrophy in these fields.

Cross-disciplinary consultations are the rule of the day in the hard sciences and medicine. The old barriers in the hard sciences are being torn down daily, with stupefying results. The social and behavioral sciences have not kept pace with the rate of development and progress in the hard sciences.

  1. We can provide case-study reasoning, but we have no systematic, evidence-based explanation. Schools and funding sources have a great responsibility in deciding to whom the awards should go.
  2. Our jobs as criminologists and justice professionals is much the same, but in the inverse. It may be unsupported by systematic evaluation, but if it is politically appealing it will be embraced.
  3. Consider, for example, the case of Dr. Let me draw another analogy.
  4. It will also strengthen ties between academic departments on campus. Outliers in either direction were immediately noticed, though—writing 250 words when the space accommodates 650, or submitting 2-3 pages when a single page was requested—can send a bad first impression.

There have, however, been some contributions of merit coming from the soft sciences in this past century. The social sciences are not as stone-cold dead as Bloom surmises, but his basic causal premise is well taken. There is a lack of significant inter-disciplinary exchange and cross-fertilization in the academic world of the social and behavioral sciences, and this is inhibiting growth and development in these fields of study.

I would suggest that much of the reason behind the rather rapid rise of criminal justice as a field of study in the United States has been its cross-disciplinary diversity. A marginal field of study in the l960s and l970s, criminal justice exploded onto the academic scene in the l990s in part due to the emergence of crime as a fundamental matter on the mind of the body politic, but also in large part due to academic diversity, and to its multi-disciplinary character.

It is not unusual to see criminal justice faculty members degrees in history, psychology, sociology, public administration, law, political science, urban studies, as well as criminology and criminal justice.

The State of the Field of Criminology: A Brief Essay

There is a need to continue to cling to the multi-disciplinary model that has fueled this rather abrupt contemporary rise of justice education in the world of academe 2and extend our reach to include colleagues from all nations. Such a proposal has two distinct advantages: Students will have their educational experience enhanced due to this academic cross-breeding. They will interact with both faculty and students from other disciplines and see things from a broader perspective.

The very nature of education suggests the need to break out, to examine and explore from new perspectives and new horizons. My experience is that the superior criminal justice students frequently indicate a desire to take courses outside of the major, not because of problems with the criminal justice program, but out of a desire to enhance the breadth of their educational experience.

This will serve to increase the nature and scope of the interaction between faculty members from different fields of study, with a resulting increase in productivity as a result of this cross-fertilization. It will also strengthen ties between academic departments on campus.

  • Indeed, we have no criminological thermometers, no criminological CAT scans, no criminological penicillin, no criminological vaccines;
  • The faculty and students of the university justice programs will engage in research activities that will produce a more complete knowledge base and shed further light on ways and means of improving justice system practices, programs and policies;
  • Indeed, we have no criminological thermometers, no criminological CAT scans, no criminological penicillin, no criminological vaccines.

There is, in fact, a need to break down the walls of disciplinary sterility that infect so many academic institutions, and this proposal will go far to achieve that end. A side effect will be multi-departmental grant proposals, and a general aura of collaborative research and writing.

As noted, the hard sciences have already moved in this direction, particularly the medical field; a single author piece in a medical journal is as passe as a prescription for laudanum. The social sciences, with their archaic traditions of "lone wolf writers" are clearly out of step with the times.

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No one individual can possibly be expected to absorb and assimilate all relevant material in the vast and exploding entity we call the Abody of knowledge. An interdisciplinary justice education program recognizes this reality, and it serves as an aggressive and robust response to the realities of modern social science. Evidence Based Criminology What do we know about reducing the severity of crime?