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Anaerobic digestion technology for treatment of distillery waste environmental sciences essay

CAcT Home Water Treatment Water treatment is a process of making water suitable for its application or returning its natural state. Thus, water treatment required before and after its application. The required treatment depends on the application. For example, treatment of greywater from bath, dish and wash water differs from the black water from flush toilets.

Composting toilet is not allowed in urban dwelling. Yet, composting toilets are used in a 30,000-square-foot office complex at the Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia. Water treatment involves science, engineering, business, and art. The treatment may include mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical methods.

As with any technology, science is the foundation, and engineering makes sure that the technology works as designed. The appearance and application of water is an art. Milliporea Fisher Scientific partner, offers many lines of products to produce ultrapure water, using a combination of active charcoal membranes, and reverse osmosis filter. Internet sites of these companies offer useful information regarding water.

An environmental scientist or consultant matches the service provider, modify if necessary, with the requirement. Natural Water includes some discussion on hard and soft water. Softening hard water for boiler, cooler, and domestic application is discussed therein.

These treatments prepare water so that it is suitable for the applications. Water Biology deals with water and biology. Drinking water is part of making water suitable for living. Thus, this link gives some considerations to drinking water problems. There are many different industry types, and waters from various sources are usually treated before and after their applications.

Pre-application treatment and wastewater treatment offer a special opportunity or challenge. Only a general consideration will be given to some industrial processes. General municipal and domestic wastewater treatment converts used water waste into environmentally acceptable water or even drinking water. Every urban centre requires such a facility. General Wastewater Treatment Water is a renewable resource.

Water Treatment

All water treatments involve the removal of solids, bacteria, algae, plants, inorganic compounds, and organic compounds. Removal of solids is usually done by filtration and sediment. Bacteria digestion is an important process to remove harmful pollutants. Converting used water into environmentally acceptable water or even drinking water is wastewater treatment Water in the Great Lakes Region is an organization dealing with the water resources.

Ontario Clean Water Agency OCWA is a provincial Crown corporation in business to provide environmentally responsible and cost-efficient water and wastewater services. It currently operates more than 400 facilities for 200 municipalities. This web site provides information on water and water treatment.

In April 1993, 403,000 people in Milwaukee were ill as a result of cryptosporidium contaimination of water due to spring run off. This outbreak caused the more stringent regulations to be implemented in the public dringking water system. The measures were aimed at removing cryptosporidium.

In May 2000, due to torrential downpour surface water got into shallow wells in a small town Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. On May 17, some residents complained of fever, bloody diarrhea and vomiting. This was know as the Walkerton E. Nearly half of the population of the town fell ill, and several people died due to the E. A public inquiry recommended many measures to prevent similar outbreaks. These measures were aimed at eliminating E.

Sewage Treatment As a general discussion, let us look at a typical process in sewage treatment. The water can be filtered again, and then disinfected chlorinated in most cases. When there is no other complication, the water is returned to nature back to the ecological cycle. Anaerobic without oxygen and aerobic with air bacteria digestions are used. At the digestion stage, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane gases are evolved. Volume of the digested sludge is reduced, and it anaerobic digestion technology for treatment of distillery waste environmental sciences essay acceptable as a fertilizer supplement in farming.

Some general consideration of water treatment is given below. A rather recent book, Chemistry of Water Treatment by S. The first three chapters discuss the criteria and standards for drinking water quality, organic compounds in waters, taste and order of water.

Understandably, the standards change over the years. So are the standards of treated waters. Guidelines are available from government agencies such as Environment Canada which is equivalent to U. We have talked about drinking water in Water Biology. Next seven chapters deal with the removal of the following: There is a chapter dealing with aeration These items cover the chemistry, biology, and physics involved in the treatment of water.

Some of these topics have been discussed in chemistry of waterphysical properties of waterbiology of waterand natural water. Introductions are going to be given to some selected topics below.

Treatment by activated carbon Treatment by activated carbon is mostly due to adsorption or absorption. When a chemical species is adhered to the surface of a solid, it is an adsorption. When partial chemical bonds are formed between adsorbed species or when the absorbate got into the channels of the solids, we call it absorption.

However, these two terms are often used to mean the same, because to distinguish one from type from the other is very difficult. Application of activated charcoal for the removal of undesirable order and taste in drinking water has been recognized at the dawn of civilization. Using bone char and charred vegetation, gravel, and sand for the filtration of water for domestic application has been practised for thousands of years. Active research and production of activated charcoal was accelerated during the two world wars.

Methane emission from waste water treatment plants can earn carbon revenue

The use of poison gas prompted the development of masks. They are still in use today. Charcoal absorbs many substances, ranging from colored organic particulates to inorganic metal ions. Charcoal has been used to remove the colour of raw sugar from various sources.

  1. In April 1993, 403,000 people in Milwaukee were ill as a result of cryptosporidium contaimination of water due to spring run off. Wastewater from domestic municipal sewage and industrial sources is treated in municipal sewage treatment facilities and private effluent treatment plants ETPs.
  2. Softening hard water for boiler, cooler, and domestic application is discussed therein.
  3. Converting used water into environmentally acceptable water or even drinking water is wastewater treatment Water in the Great Lakes Region is an organization dealing with the water resources.
  4. The depth of such lagoon is greater than 2 m that creates suitable anaerobic environment for anaerobic bacteria.

Charcoal consists of microcrystallites of graphite. The particles are so small in charcoal that they were considered amorphous. The crystal structure of graphite consists of layers of hexagonal networks, stacked on top of each other.

  • Following table shows registered Indian CDM projects till Sep 2011; Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas compared with carbon dioxide as it has a physically bigger molecule than CO2 and hence it preferentially absorbs longer wavelength radiation;
  • A public inquiry recommended many measures to prevent similar outbreaks;
  • Such a process is called flocculation;
  • Anaerobic without oxygen and aerobic with air bacteria digestions are used;
  • Coagulation is a major application of lime in the treatment of wastewater.

Today, making activated carbon is a new and widely varied industry. Other molecules attach themselves to the porous surface and dangling carbons in these microcrystallites. Carbon containing substances are charred at less than 900 K to produce carbon in the manufacture of activated carbon. However, the carbon is activated at 1200 K using oxidizing agent to selectively oxidize portions of the char to produce pores in the material.

Because of the special process to produce used, these materials with high surface to mass ratio, they are called activated carbon rather than activated charcoal.

Factors affecting the absorption are particle size, surface area, pore structure, acidity pHtemperature, and the nature of the material to be absorbed.

Usually, adsorption absorption equilibria and rate of adsorption must be considered for effective applications. Coagulation, flucculation and sedimentation Natural and wastewater containing small particulates.

They are suspended in water forming a colloid. These particles carry the same charges, and repulsion prevents them from combining into larger particulates to settle.

Thus, some chemical and physical techniques are applied to help them settle. The phenomenon is known as coagulation. A well known method is the addition of electrolyte. Charged particulates combine with ions neutralizing the charges.

The neutral particulates combine to form larger particles, and finally settle down. Another method is to use high-molecular-weight material to attract or trap the particulates and settle down together.

Such a process is called flocculation. Starch and multiply charged ions are often used. Historically, dirty water is cleaned by treating with alum, Al2 SO4 3. These electrolytes cause the pH of the water to change due to the following reactions: Some records have been found that Egyptians and Romans used these techniques as early as 2000 BC.

Suspension of iron oxide particulates and humic organic matter in water gives water the yellow muddy appearance. Both iron oxide particulates and organic matter can be removed from coagulation and flocculation. The description given here is oversimplified, and many more techniques have been applied in the treatment of water. Coagulation is a major application of lime in the treatment of wastewater. Other ions such as sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium also affect the coagulation process.

So do temperature, pH, and concentration.