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Cause and effect essay of childhood obesity

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health.

Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes.

Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the cause and effect essay of childhood obesity prevalence of obesity worldwide.

In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem.

It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

Childhood obesity, consequences, epidemiology, lifestyle, non-communicable disease, overweight Introduction The world is undergoing a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition characterized by persistent nutritional deficiencies, as evidenced by the prevalence of stunting, anemia, and iron and zinc deficiencies.

Concomitantly, there is a progressive rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and other nutrition related chronic diseases NRCDs like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. Obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its prevalence is increasing in developing countries as well.

Studies emerging from different parts of India within last decade are also indicative of similar trend.

Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

This new conceptualization leads us to simultaneously address the root causes of nutritional deficiencies which in turn will contribute to the control of under nutrition and the prevention of obesity, diabetes, and other NRCDs. This summary provides a public health overview of selected key issues related to the prevention of obesity and chronic diseases with a life-course perspective of nutrition and child growth.

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries, particularly in urban settings. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Globally in 2010, the number of overweight children under the age of five is estimated to be over 42 million. Close to 35 million of these are living in developing countries. Definition of Childhood Obesity Although definition of obesity and overweight has changed over time, it can be defined as an excess of body fat BF.

There is no consensus on a cut-off point for excess fatness of overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. A study by conducted by Williams et al. In research, techniques include underwater weighing densitometrymulti-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis BIAand magnetic resonance imaging Cause and effect essay of childhood obesity.

In the clinical environment, techniques such as BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness have been used extensively. Although, these methods are less accurate than research methods, they are satisfactory to identify risk. While BMI seems appropriate for differentiating adults, it may not be as useful in children because of their changing body shape as they progress through normal growth.

In addition, BMI fails to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass muscle and bone and may exaggerate obesity in large muscular children.

Furthermore, maturation pattern differs between genders and different ethnic groups. Although methods such as densitometry can be used in research practice, they are not feasible for clinical settings. For large population-based studies and clinical situations, bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA is widely used. Waist circumference seems to cause and effect essay of childhood obesity more accurate for children because it targets central obesity, which is a risk factor for type II diabetes and coronary heart disease.

Causes of Childhood Obesity It is widely accepted that increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the lifestyle adopted and the dietary intake preferences. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. Research has made important contributions to our understanding of the factors associated with obesity.

The ecological model, as described by Davison et al. Genetics are one of the biggest factors examined as a cause of obesity. Basal metabolic rate has also been studied as a possible cause of obesity.

Basal metabolic rate, or metabolism, is the body's expenditure of energy for normal resting functions. It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. However, differences in basal metabolic rates are not likely to be responsible for the rising rates of obesity.

Availability of, and repeated exposure to, healthy foods is key to developing preferences and can overcome dislike of foods. Mealtime structure is important with evidence suggesting that families who eat together consume more healthy foods.

Furthermore, eating out or watching TV while eating is associated with a higher intake of fat.

  1. Lastly, family habits, whether they are sedentary or physically active, influence the child. Dramatic events in the lives of young children such as deaths in the family, divorce of the parents, or moving from one place to another can also lead to overeating.
  2. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century.
  3. J Am Diet Assoc.

Parental feeding style is also significant. The author's found that authoritative feeding determining which foods are offered, allowing the child to choose, and providing rationale for healthy options is associated with positive cognitions about healthy foods and healthier intake.

Research indicates taste, followed by hunger and price, is the most important factor in adolescents snack choices. As proposed by the National Taskforce on Obesity 2005fiscal policies such as taxing unhealthy options, providing incentives for the distribution of inexpensive healthy food, and investing in convenient recreational facilities or the esthetic quality of neighborhoods can enhance healthy eating and physical activity.

Introduction

The dietary factors that have been examined include fast food consumption, sugary beverages, snack foods, and portion sizes. Increased fast food consumption has been linked with obesity in the recent years. Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive. A study conducted examined the eating habits of lean and overweight adolescents at fast food restaurants.

Though many studies have shown weight gain with regular consumption of fast food, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between fast food and obesity. Sugary beverages A study examining children aged 9—14 from 1996—1998, found that consumption of sugary beverages increased BMI by small amounts over the years. Sugary drinks are often thought of as being limited to soda, but juice and other sweetened beverages fall into this category.

Many studies have examined the link between sugary drink consumption and weight and it has been continually found to be a contributing factor to being overweight. Snack foods include foods such as chips, baked goods, and candy. Many studies have been conducted to examine whether these foods have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity.

While snacking has been shown to increase overall caloric intake, no studies have been able to find a link between snacking and overweight. Consuming large portions, in addition to frequent snacking on highly caloric foods, contribute to cause and effect essay of childhood obesity excessive caloric intake.

This energy imbalance can cause weight gain, and consequently obesity. Research which indicates the number of hours children spend watching TV correlates with their consumption of the most advertised goods, including sweetened cereals, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks.

Media effects have been found for adolescent aggression and smoking and formation of unrealistic body ideals. Regulation of marketing for unhealthy foods is recommended, as is media advocacy to promote healthy eating.

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Environmental factors While extensive television viewing and the use of other electronic media has contributed to the sedentary lifestyles, other environmental factors have reduced the opportunities for physical activity. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years. The majority of children in the past walked or rode their bike to school. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child.

Our society tends to use food as a reward, as a means to control others, and as part of socializing. Family factors Family factors have also been associated with the increase of cases of obesity. The types of food available in the house and the food preferences of family members can influence the foods that children eat.

In addition, family mealtimes can influence the type of food consumed and the amount thereof. Lastly, family habits, whether they are sedentary or physically active, influence the child. Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped relationship suggests that boys with BMIs at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction.

Consequences of childhood obesity Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. These potential consequences are further examined in the following sections. Medical consequences Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous medical conditions.

These conditions include, but are not limited to, fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hepatic steatosis fatty liver diseasecardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, cholelithiasis gallstonesglucose intolerance and insulin resistance, skin conditions, menstrual abnormalities, impaired balance, and orthopedic problems.

Although most of the physical health conditions associated with childhood obesity are preventable and can disappear when a child or adolescent reaches a healthy weight, some continue to have negative consequences throughout adulthood.

Below, three of the more common health problems associated with childhood obesity are discussed, diabetes, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease.

Socio-emotional consequences In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. They also face numerous other hardships including negative stereotypes, discrimination, and social marginalization. It is often difficult for overweight children to participate in physical activities as they tend to be slower than their peers and contend with shortness of breath.

The social consequences of obesity may contribute to continuing difficulty in weight management. Overweight children tend to protect themselves from negative comments and attitudes by retreating cause and effect essay of childhood obesity safe places, such as their homes, where they may seek food as a comfort.

In addition, children who are overweight cause and effect essay of childhood obesity to have fewer friends than normal weight children, which results in less social interaction and play, and more time spent in sedentary activities.

This in turn inevitably results in weight gain, as the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of energy burned.

Causes And Effects Of Childhood Obesity Essay

A research study concluded that overweight and obese children were four times more likely to report having problems at school than their normal weight peers. Conclusion The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. There are many components that play into childhood obesity, some being more crucial than others.

A combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. Moreover, if parents enforce a healthier lifestyle at home, many obesity problems could be avoided. What children learn at home about eating healthy, exercising and making the right nutritional choices will eventually spill over into other aspects of their life.

This will have the biggest influence on the choices kids make when selecting foods to consume at school and fast-food restaurants and choosing to be active.

Focusing on these causes may, over time, decrease childhood obesity and lead to a healthier society as a whole. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: