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Gay rights in the united states essay

Like pre-modern scholars of law and ethics, these books assume heteronormativity. As a concept, homosexuality is relatively recent, gay rights in the united states essay if there is plenty of evidence for homoerotic pleasure in the past — albeit illicit in religious terms. Scriptures and later writers usually referred only to particular sexual acts and did not raise the issue of personal sexual orientation.

For religious conservatives, though, both Muslim and Christian, the occasional derogatory reference to same-sex acts is enough to prove their inherent sinfulness in all circumstances. More liberal interpreters point to broader ethical considerations such as compassion and empathy.

They argue that the condemnations of scripture do not apply to committed relationships founded on love. Such a perspective, however, is inevitably more common among believers concerned with human rights, influenced by gender theory, and trained in contextual and holistic methods of interpretation. Homosexuality in the Bible Leviticus 20: The possibility that one party has been coerced is not discussed: However, the offence seems to be no worse than other capital crimes mentioned in the same context, such as adultery and incest.

Paul evidently regarded the prohibition of sexual acts between men or between women as violations of natural law known even to non-Jews — at least if their minds were not clouded by idolatry Romans 1: He seems to have reflected contemporary views that men should be sexually assertive and women passive, and that sexual activity must be at least potentially procreative.

Sodom and sodomy Lot fleeing with his family, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1615. As recounted in Genesis 19, however, this is not a story about love or consensual sex between men: Perhaps he considers the rape of his daughters a lesser evil than the rape of his guests.

The fact that the guests are male is not emphasised. After the visitors angels in human form rescue Lot and his family, God rains down fire and brimstone upon Sodom, Gomorrah, and other cities nearby.

When the wickedness of Sodom is recalled in other parts of the Bible, homosexuality is not mentioned.

Yet, despite this broader context, the story was often interpreted primarily as a condemnation gay rights in the united states essay homosexual activity in any form. The Arabic term for homosexual anal intercourse, liwat, comes from his name rather as English derived the term sodomy from the name of the town. As in Genesis, Lut seems to argue with the men of Sodom over the relative propriety of abusing his daughters or his guests 11: More often, though, the emphasis is on his condemnation of lusting after men instead of women 7: In the Qur'an, Lut says: Indeed, you approach men with desire, instead of women.

Rather, you are a transgressing people. These led in turn to inhospitality and the rape of male visitors. Yet, the Prophet is supposed to have declared that both the active and the passive partner should be subject to the same penalty as for zina illicit heterosexual sex, usually adulterynamely execution by stoning. The Prophet peace be upon him said: A few hadith warn women against seeing or touching each other when naked.

Traditional Islamic jurisprudence assumed strict gender roles. Marriage was understood in hierarchical terms, but although a man could have sexual relations with female slaves, he did not have the same rights over male slaves. Prescribed penalties for homosexual acts varied according to different schools and individual scholars.

In any case, it was difficult to attain the required level of eye-witness testimony. In practice, homosexual encounters, including with young male prostitutes, seem to have been quite common in Islamic societies.

  1. Deducing that it may therefore be legitimate remains a step too far for most. Homosexuality in the Bible Leviticus 20.
  2. After the visitors angels in human form rescue Lot and his family, God rains down fire and brimstone upon Sodom, Gomorrah, and other cities nearby. Paul evidently regarded the prohibition of sexual acts between men or between women as violations of natural law known even to non-Jews — at least if their minds were not clouded by idolatry Romans 1.
  3. In any case, it was difficult to attain the required level of eye-witness testimony. Christian gays and lesbians have had to work hard for a measure of recognition among fellow-believers; their Muslim counterparts are just beginning that struggle.
  4. Traditional Islamic jurisprudence assumed strict gender roles. As recounted in Genesis 19, however, this is not a story about love or consensual sex between men.

They were no more or less a cause for moralistic concern than other forms of illicit sex. Reinterpreting the Islamic tradition Without actually endorsing homosexuality, some Muslims in Western societies have recognised a parallel between the religious acceptance they demand and the acceptance demanded by gays and lesbians. The New Zealand Muslim MP Ashraf Choudary who did not realise that the Qur'an does not urge the stoning of homosexuals observed that, if the law allows one minority group in our society to be discriminated against then all minorities are vulnerable.

Some, such as Cambridge philosopher Abdal Hakim Murad Timothy Winterhave accepted that a homosexual orientation may be innate but say that does not make homosexual sex permissible. Deducing that it may therefore be legitimate remains a step too far for most.

Traditionally, if sins can be forgiven when repented, declaring forbidden acts not to be sinful has been regarded as heresy or even apostasy.

Commentators such as Mehdi Hasanafter wrestling thoughtfully with the issues, have concluded that while they do not approve of homosexual acts, they cannot condone homophobia. Muslims and others have to respect each other, which includes accepting that the law permits gay marriage. The problem is with how people have interpreted it. It is difficult to be openly gay or lesbian in predominantly Islamic countries, but in the West, there are even a few gay imams. There are also support groups for gay and lesbian Muslims.

  1. Traditional Islamic jurisprudence assumed strict gender roles. Muslims and others have to respect each other, which includes accepting that the law permits gay marriage.
  2. For religious conservatives, though, both Muslim and Christian, the occasional derogatory reference to same-sex acts is enough to prove their inherent sinfulness in all circumstances. Writers such as Scott Kugle Siraj al-Haqq try to reconcile Islamic identity with alternative sexual orientations.
  3. Sodom and sodomy Lot fleeing with his family, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1615.
  4. Christian gays and lesbians have had to work hard for a measure of recognition among fellow-believers; their Muslim counterparts are just beginning that struggle. Commentators such as Mehdi Hasan , after wrestling thoughtfully with the issues, have concluded that while they do not approve of homosexual acts, they cannot condone homophobia.
  5. Scriptures and later writers usually referred only to particular sexual acts and did not raise the issue of personal sexual orientation. Marriage was understood in hierarchical terms, but although a man could have sexual relations with female slaves, he did not have the same rights over male slaves.

Writers such as Scott Kugle Siraj al-Haqq try to reconcile Islamic identity with alternative sexual orientations. The latter need not be short-term and may offer an alternative framework for co-habitation without formal marriage. Christian gays and lesbians have had to work hard for a measure of recognition among fellow-believers; their Muslim counterparts are just beginning that struggle.