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History of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay

David Thomas Orique, O. The author is grateful to both for the opportunity to conduct this research. Las Casas condemned the wars of conquest and the consequent unjust enslavement of New World indigenous peoples; Oliveira condemned unjust warfare waged to promote and sustain the slave trade along the West African coast.

  • From 1552-1563, Las Casas revised and augmented the Historia [general] de las Indias;
  • In this second landmark obra mayor, he explicated his argument asserting the full humanity of indigenous peoples as rational human beings, and described the diverse indigenous nations, their economies, politics, cultures, religions, and natural environments from early Hispaniola to mid-sixteenth-century Peru.

This analysis demonstrates that both priests denounced warfare that violated the principles of just war and therefore resulted in enslavements without just cause. With the waning sunset of the medieval era, the dawning sunrise of the Renaissance world, and the approaching midday sun of the early modern era, among those especially associated with counter-narratives of this transitional process in America and Iberia, Las Casas has maintained prominence in the critique of the abrupt arrival and disruptive entrance of Columbus and other Europeans into the Atlantic World and especially into the so-called New World.

To do so, the period in which Las Casas and his Lusitanian contemporaries lived will be contextualized first by a brief description history of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay the Age of Exploration in the Atlantic world. A brief history will then be presented of the Dominican Order and its reforms in Portugal and Spain, which also shaped Las Casas, as well as his Portuguese Dominican contemporaries.

The Age of Extension, Exploitation, and Expansion In the initiation of the process of opening the Atlantic World to European extension and exploitation, Portugal occupies first place. As a result of their more rapid peninsular resolution of territorial and religious conflicts with Islam, Portugal was less distracted by Christian-Muslim continental rivalry and, as a result, devoted more time and resources to developing the experience and know-how needed to unfurl its maritime ambitions.

For European Christians religious and politicalthe sacred and secular union was unquestioned, as well as expected, as they moved into new territories. Also characteristic of this century throughout Portugal was the growth of reformed priories. For example, in 1415, the first of these well-educated reform Dominican friars, Afonso de Alfama, and three companions whose names are unknown accompanied the initial overseas Portuguese expedition: By the sixteenth century, the reformed Portuguese communities were so effective that their influence reached Spain and France, the birthplace of the Order.

In addition, these Lusitanic reformed communities expanded their influence to wherever the ocean-going Portuguese traveled. Indeed, Dominican life in Portugal as well as in Spain reached a new apogee during the sixteenth century with its nearly three thousand registered Portuguese friars, many of whom journeyed overseas as missionaries where they encountered new cultures and peoples with whom they exchanged insights and knowledge.

History of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay

The Spanish Dominicans who followed and witnessed the early extension into and exploitation of the West Indies were also formed in the Dominican tradition of the missionary-intellectual apostolate, as evidenced in their actions and writings.

In general, this Order, which was known for its missionary-intellectual orientation, produced a number of friars who vigorously announced the Gospel and openly denounced the injustices. Even so, there were also a number of them who actively opposed the peaceful proclamation of the gospel and vociferously criticized Las Casas and his pro-indigenous Dominican confreres. Much has been written about the presence, critiques, and contributions of Spanish Dominicans in the Indies, and in Europe on behalf of the New World inhabitants.

History of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay

Given the missionary-intellectual characteristic of the Order, Portuguese analogues to Las Casas from this early period of Lusitanic expansion need to be brought to the light of scholarly inquiry for the sake of comparison and contrast. Viana do Castelo, 1590Archbishop of Braga and a notable scholar, also produced important theological and pastoral texts, as well as earning respect as a prelate with a practical sense.

Although he did not produce a grammar, his corpus of writings like many of the early sixteenth-century European texts about the Atlantic World has become classic literature, in which he consistently condemned the injustice of the wars of conquest and the accompanying enslavements.

While each of the above-mentioned Lusitanian clerics are possible candidates to compare and contrast with Friar Las Casas, one in particular offers interesting possibilities: In 1514 in Cuba, after a reported conversion experience while preparing for Mass, Father Las Casas completely abandoned his priest-merchant-encomendero life, fully embraced his diocesan clerical vocation, and forcefully opposed the conquest and colonization of the Indies, as well as vigorously advocating for peaceful and persuasive evangelization.

His earlier juridical training was enhanced with additional studies, especially in philosophy and theology, which followed theratio studiorum of the Friars Preachers.

Accordingly, in 1537, in Guatemala, Las Casas and some Dominican confreres collaborated successfully to convert caciques indigenous lords using peaceful and persuasive means in Sacapulas and beyond this area. As priest and friar and, in time, bishopas well history of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay royal councilor, Las Casas influenced ecclesiastic pronouncements and royal policy.

There he openly challenged the wars and enslavement, thus generating both opponents and critics, and even threats to his life. In 1550, Las Casas resigned his position as resident bishop and remained in Spain, where he focused on defending the indigenous peoples and publishing his treatises. From 1552-1563, Las Casas revised and augmented the Historia [general] de las Indias.

In this second landmark obra mayor, he explicated his argument asserting the full humanity of indigenous peoples as rational human beings, and described the diverse indigenous nations, their economies, politics, history of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay, religions, and natural environments from early Hispaniola to mid-sixteenth-century Peru.

Important and ad rem to this particular discussion, Las Casas denounced the use of unjust wars conquests and slavery as the means for territorial extension and commercial exploitation, as well as religious expansion. Fernando Oliveira Oliveira was born, probably in 1507, in the village of Couto do Mosteiro in Gestosa, which region was part of the Bishopric of Coimbra.

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In addition to achieving proficiency in rhetoric and fluency in writing Latin, Fernando was formed by and educated in the traditions and teachings of the Order of Preachers. Typical of the contemporaneous reformed communities of the Order in Iberia, he would have received a solid formation in Dominican conventual life, as well as a good education in scholastic philosophy and theology.

During this bellicose action between the naval forces of Francis I and Henry VIII, which ended on 18 May 1546, Oliveira was among those captured when a ship was seized during the combat.

All were taken to England as prisoners of war; however, Oliveira did not narrate the concrete circumstances of his capture.

After this, what exactly happened to Oliveira remains speculative. Although a Portuguese pilot was reported to have engaged in history of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay to free prisoners and returned from the English court with a letter for the Portuguese king, John III r. This tour of duty offered another opportunity to continue drafting his manual about the art of war.

Indeed, in this work, he recounted an episode in which a much larger Turkish naval force attacked them, captured the ship that Oliveira was on, took him and the surviving crew captive, and held them to ransom. In 1554, Oliveira was appointed corrector at the Imprensa da Universidad de Coimbra, as well as instructor of classes on Quintilian thought at the university. To these positions, to which he was assigned as a licenciado, he would have brought his expertise in grammar and rhetoric.

Similarities and Dissimilarities Several similarities and dissimilarities characterize the lives of these two men. Both were Dominicans friars as well as secular priests.

For both clerics, this change in their life was swift. For Las Casas, at the age of 38, the change was dramatic and seemingly prompted by his disillusion with his failed projects and his need for a monastic life. For Oliveira, at the age of 25, the change was sudden and the reasons were unknown.

Both clerics were educated during the liminal period between the late Renaissance and the Early Modern eras, as well as during the flowering of Christian humanism; both expressed this formation in their rhetorical writings.

The Spanish Dominican wrote with great persuasion and unrelenting conviction, although not as coherently as Oliveira.

  1. Although noteworthy and interesting, these accounts are beyond the scope and focus of this particular project. He called for its abolition with the same passion and determination that he portrayed on behalf of enslaved indigenous people.
  2. He called for its abolition with the same passion and determination that he portrayed on behalf of enslaved indigenous people. In 1550, Las Casas resigned his position as resident bishop and remained in Spain, where he focused on defending the indigenous peoples and publishing his treatises.
  3. After this, what exactly happened to Oliveira remains speculative. In 1550, Las Casas resigned his position as resident bishop and remained in Spain, where he focused on defending the indigenous peoples and publishing his treatises.
  4. Given the missionary-intellectual characteristic of the Order, Portuguese analogues to Las Casas from this early period of Lusitanic expansion need to be brought to the light of scholarly inquiry for the sake of comparison and contrast. Both clerics censured political interests.

Both benefited from influential people during their years as students: Both embraced and embodied the Dominican tradition of study, and were noted for their pursuit of autodidactic learning. The challenge of the time was that European thinkers, including Oliveira and Las Casas, were confronted with new realities, which created the need to rethink the deductive use of traditional sources and to retool the practical application of their reassessments.

Yet, both clerics enjoyed some degree of support from their respective monarchs. Oliveira addressed these issues in the first five chapters of his A Arte da Guerra do Mar. Las Casas also assessed the wars of conquest through recourse to the principles of just war.

However, dissimilarities exist in their foci because they addressed different scenarios. Oliveira pointed out that African monarchs waged unjust wars with other African states to obtain slaves to sell to the Europeans, or they obtained fellow-Africans for the slave trade through robbery.

  • A brief history will then be presented of the Dominican Order and its reforms in Portugal and Spain, which also shaped Las Casas, as well as his Portuguese Dominican contemporaries;
  • In 1417, Portugal was formed as a province in 1417 and given papal approval in 1418 by Pope Martin V whose election in 1417 ended the Western Schism [1378-1417];
  • Similarities and Dissimilarities Several similarities and dissimilarities characterize the lives of these two men;
  • After this, what exactly happened to Oliveira remains speculative;
  • Champlain the visionary would change that history essays related to samuel de champlain 1 there the pueblo indians tried to resist the invasion of spanish;
  • A brief history will then be presented of the Dominican Order and its reforms in Portugal and Spain, which also shaped Las Casas, as well as his Portuguese Dominican contemporaries.

Although a market existed among Africans, he accused the Portuguese of creating the demand for history of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay and thus extending the slave trade across the Atlantic.

In their assessments of warfare, both clerics drew upon the heritage and principles of just war theory. Indeed, according to this Iberian heritage, which was also evident during the conquest years in the Indies, certain procedures were required and followed, such as branding and registering the captives. For both Dominican-trained priests, the enslavements pursued by their countries were irrational and, as such, constituted instances of tyrannical rule.

This reflected a major shift in the method of acquiring slaves; instead of acquisition via bellicose methods, diplomatic and commercial methods were employed. He argued that the pontiff had only indirect and not arbitrary authority over infidels, which could be used only to achieve a spiritual end.

Las Casas charged that the conquests that were mandated by the king in royal orders and capitulaciones did not mandate the kinds of conquests actually carried out by the conquistadores. Both Las Casas and Oliveira claimed that the wars that were waged served particular interests rather than the common and universal good. Oliveira charged that wars were waged with the economic goal of specifically making captives to be sold in the slave trade.

Both clerics censured political interests: Both clerics insisted that there was no Christian justification for forced conversion; and that the enslavements did not facilitate conversion to Christianity. Such a request was not unusual; many petitioned for African slaves. In 1546, after attending a meeting of mendicant friars in Mexico City, he began to question his stance.

Consequently, when returning to Spain in 1547, he stopped at Lisbon, where he consulted archived royal and commercial documents, as well as obtained the testimony of Portuguese chroniclers.

He concluded that, contrary to what he had previously believed, African slaves had not been captured in just wars. Realizing that he had erred because of his ignorance of the facts, he repented his error and condemned the slave trade. He called for its abolition with the same passion and determination that he portrayed on behalf of enslaved indigenous people. Indeed, he became the first to denounce the African slave trade. In effect, Las Casas now extended his theoretical and practical defense of the indigenous peoples to a defense of liberty for all people, including African slaves.

In the writings of Oliveira, it is difficult to establish that slavery needed to be halted completely; he does not speak of a complete cessation of slavery. In contrast, Las Casas addressed and condemned all the wars of conquest, the slavery generated by these unjust wars, and slavery as an institution.

Houghton-Mifflin, 2000xiii, xiv; Donald S. Conway, 2007122-27. Although noteworthy and interesting, these accounts are beyond the scope and focus of this particular project. In this research, Spain signifies the regions of the Iberian Peninsula that would be directly or indirectly controlled by Castile and Aragon.

California Press, 19856-8; 150-52; J. Reaktion Books, 200949; A. Russell-Wood, The Portuguese Empire, 1415-1808: Minnesota Press, 197721-2. Cambridge University Press, 199824. Editora, 201171-72; passim.

Greenwood Press, 200027-28; Spencer C. Tucker, A Global Chronology of Conflict: This institution a historically lamentable injustice, yet contemporarily instructive faced limitations in enforcing religious conformity. Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: Correspondingly, in Portugal, the Inquisition 1536-1821 was established to deal with similarly perceived threats to orthodox History of the pueblo rosario chapliancy essay, such as divination, witchcraft, and bigamy, as well as the threats coming from those who had converted from Judaism.

Editora Pax, 1993112-14; Newitt, Portugal in European, 113-31. Although Spain made the first contact in 1402, Europeans had known of the islands since antiquity; yet, after the fall of the Roman Empire, these contacts were less frequent. As European rivalry increased, so too did interest in this archipelago as a possible springboard to trade with Africa and the Orient, which resulted from improved shipbuilding methods and navigational guidance technologies.

The conquest of these islands was also an extension of the religio-political process of the Reconquista. Cambridge University Press, 2009:

  • Las Casas condemned the wars of conquest and the consequent unjust enslavement of New World indigenous peoples; Oliveira condemned unjust warfare waged to promote and sustain the slave trade along the West African coast;
  • The challenge of the time was that European thinkers, including Oliveira and Las Casas, were confronted with new realities, which created the need to rethink the deductive use of traditional sources and to retool the practical application of their reassessments.