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Introduction to the sports goods industry marketing essay

Previous Next Sports and the Environment: Scientists deal with this issue as well as authorities, sports associations and conservation groups. Above all, since the World Conference 1992 in Rio de Janeiro questions of lifestyle are on the agenda for the environmental debate. Sport represents a significant part of our different lifestyles and thus automatically becomes a subject of discussion.

Many sports associations have built up professional and voluntary structures and include environmental issues in their public relations. It is to be welcomed that the International Pierre de Coubertin Committee has decided to make Sport and the Environment a central topic on the agenda for the 4th School Forum at Genova-Arenzano 2003.

This paper is essentially practically oriented. It describes the most important complexes of problems and shows appropriate action towards a sustainable future of sport.

In our society sport fulfils important functions and is indeed indispensable. It offers opportunities for physical activity in a world where physical activity is increasingly diminishing; it promotes good health and well-being when pursued in moderation ; and it provides a means of social contact and ample opportunity for intensive experiences.

At the same time, however, sport can be a considerable cause of damage to nature and the environment. Damage can occur directly as a result of the pursuit of sports activities or the building and operation of the requisite infrastructure, or it can be caused by indirect factors such as the use of cars to travel to and from sports activities. The causes of the conflict between sport and the environment are inherent in sport itself and are also a consequence of deep-rooted social changes; they may be understood only from this perspective.

Since the 1970s, higher income, more leisure, greater mobility and increasing individualisation have formed the basis for major and continuing changes in sport. These changes include the following: Sport is claiming more territory, and this is continually putting numerous animal and plant species under threat and causing the loss introduction to the sports goods industry marketing essay natural landscapes.

Sport can not only affect nature and landscapes, but can also give rise to other environmental damage. With regard to this problem, the use of non-renewable resources, the emission of harmful substances during the building and operation of sports facilities, journeys to and from these facilities, and the production and disposal of sports equipment all play a key role.

1 . Introduction

Sports activities can cause critical damage to and endanger precious and vulnerable locations. However, in terms of overall damage, sport tends to play a lesser role compared to other causes such as agriculture, forestry, industry and transport. In the analysis of conflicts between sport and the environment, areas of overlap with other forms of land use must be taken into account.

At the same time, sport is also affected by general damage to the environment caused by other sources. Such damage includes, for example, a large number of devaluated watercourses, e. Thus, while sport can be an obstacle to issues of nature conservation and environmental protection, the two conflicting areas also have common interests. New approaches are required for resolving existing conflicts between sport and the environment in the long term.

This means, above all, orienting conservation and utilisation concepts to the principle of sustainability in line with the agreements reached at the Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

Sport must be included in the on-going debate on implementation of Agenda 21, which was adopted at the conference. The aim should be for representatives of sport and those promoting the cause of nature conservation and environmental protection to join forces and draw up guidelines for sustain-able development in sport. Criteria for the sustainable development of sport The model of sustainable development consists in reconciling the improvement of economic and social living conditions with the long-term protection of the natural basis of life in order to also give future generations the opportunity to unfold.

It not only addresses governments, but also business and industry, all social groups and, indeed, each individual citizen. When applied to sport, it becomes necessary to promote and further develop forms of sport which are compatible with nature and the environment; make sports-related infrastructure more environmentally compatible; reduce damage to vulnerable areas; secure and improve opportunities for sport and physical activity outside vulnerable areas; preserve and increase the recreational quality of countryside and its enjoyment value for those doing sport.

Introduction to the sports goods industry marketing essay of action This paper limits itself to outlining central areas of action. The areas of action are linked to one another in a variety of different ways; considering them in isolation fails to do justice to the complexity of the relationships. Therefore, occasional overlaps in content are unavoidable.

Thus conflicts arising from sports activities in nature and the countryside are not a general problem. They seldom arise on a large scale, but tend to be concentrated in specific locations, which are characterised by their special attractiveness for sport, as well as by a particular vulnerability and the need for nature protection.

Preliminary Remark

Critical factors with respect to the effect of sports activities on nature are the extent, intensity and type of sport being pursued as well as the resilience of the natural area being used. In principle, the use of nature for the purposes of sport should stop at the point where the type of activity concerned considerably affects or damages nature or the rural landscape.

Thus sports activities should take into due account the degree of ecological resilience of the area concerned. In order to reduce the damage to vulnerable areas early on and at the same time fulfil the task of providing for recreation, nature conservation bodies and representatives of sport should be more involved in the planning of opportunities in resilient landscapes. A positive impact on the recreational value of countryside is generated as a side effect of the various nature conservation programmes on species and biotope conservation.

In the past, some countries have developed promising approaches, above all in the planning and management of sports and leisure activities. These are essentially aimed at ruling out, or avoiding as far as possible, potential conflicts and lessening existing conflicts.

Numerous regulations that have been put into practice and proved successful show that they can meet the demands of both sport and nature conservation. For example, leisure activities and facilities that are not tied to a particular natural environment or geographical features should be removed from vulnerable areas and transferred to less vulnerable areas of manmade landscapes or situated near residential areas.

A wide range of measures such as signposting, shifting car-parks, banning traffic from certain roads, information boards, route marking, maintaining desirable routes and closing down undesirable routes, setting up obstacles such as water-filled ditches or bushes all make it possible to transfer activities from vulnerable to more resilient areas without this being noticed by the people concerned.

Supplementary measures towards the restriction of activities to certain periods of time could be planned. In many cases problems only arise when the same areas are used excessively at the same time. Before the use of such areas is banned altogether, the possibility of restricting numbers of visitors to these areas should be examined, while taking into introduction to the sports goods industry marketing essay social fairness.

In order to avoid inadequate enforcement, planning possibilities involving the restriction of infrastructure should be considered eg. In cases where the pursuit of sports activities causes harm only at particular times, restrictions during these specific periods should be considered. In this way, nature conservation requirements during the breeding or moulting season of birds or vital periods for other animals can be respected without banning access to areas at other times. It is also possible to reconcile sport with nature conservation by defining maximum permissible group sizes, restricting activities to those which do not pose any threat in the specific situation, declaring certain areas of countryside off-limits eg.

Voluntary commitments should be given priority for achieving conservation aims as they provide greater clarity for those involved. If this is not possible or proves unsuccessful, a wide variety of different solutions should be implemented.

It is the duty of sports organisations and commercial operators to encourage a considerite attitude to nature and the environment by providing information about ecological aspects. However, environmental education processes will only be effective it all those involved are willing to respect the restrictions and acquire knowledge of nature conservation issues.

Restrictive measures intended to protect vulnerable or over-used natural areas are successful particularly when attractive alternatives are offered. These should involve upgrading the land concerned in terms of the aesthetic appeal of the landscape, ecological and recreational aspects, as well as selecting locations which avoid the generation of high traffic volumes. They do not provide a substitute for the experience of nature and may in the long term even serve to increase the use of and thus the pressure on nature.

The measures suitable for avoiding and resolving conflicts arising in connection with types of activities pursued in the countryside can be summarised as follows: Developing binding, uniform and effective regulations in areas which, for the sake of nature conservation, must be kept free of any use or certain uses Developing and testing effective measures, i.

Both recreational traffic and the activities themselves can cause considerable damage to the environment. If towns offer more suitable opportunities for games, sports and physical activities, it will be possible to ease the pressure on the countryside.

Furthermore, tying more people to the area where they live will help to lower environmentally harmful traffic volumes. To this end, ways must be sought to better satisfy the need for physical activity in the vicinity of residential areas. In order to solve the growing problem of traffic in towns, the aim should be to set up residential structures that put less pressure on people to be mobile.

When it comes to providing residents with sports facilities, this means that adequate and attractive opportunities for sports, games and physical activities for all age groups must be created or preserved in the vicinity of their homes.

Sports and the Environment: Ways towards achieving the sustainable development of sport

These opportunities should be linked to one another via green belts with foot and cycle paths. If central areas suitable for games and sports can be easily and safely reached by bicycle or public transport by the residents of a large catchments, area, this will reduce ecological damage due to traffic and cater for the needs of children, the disabled, the elderly and other groups which do not have regular use of a car. Only very cautious adjustments are required to semi-natural areas such as these in order to make them useful.

Here there is ample scope for linking aims of nature conservation and recreation by providing semi-natural areas which promise excitement and adventure. It is also possible to put buildings and land to other uses and thus provide facilities for sports and physical activities without taking up additional land.

Redesigning or restructuring former industrial buildings and estates, for example, opens up opportunities to improve the range of recreational facilities available in a region. In the tough battle over different land uses, the representatives of sport and those of the environment should join forces to set up a common lobby for more green areas.

Sports facilities affect the environment in a variety of different ways. When describing and assessing them, a distinction can be made between indoor and outdoor facilities.

Compared to sports halls, outdoor facilities require much more space.

  • Therefore, occasional overlaps in content are unavoidable;
  • The goal and the reality are still very far apart;
  • The marketing mix is the product means the goods-and-services is based upon the biological life cycle for example, a seed is planted introduction it;
  • Since most people have to travel short or long distances in order to pursue these kinds of activities, sports and tourism are today more closely linked than ever before.

How this space is treated is of considerable significance to the environment. On the one hand, the wrong choice of location, improper care over-fertilisation, irrigation using drinking water, etc. On the other hand, if environmental criteria are taken into account during the planning, building and maintenance of an outdoor sports facility, especially in conurbations, this can upgrade the area ecologically biodiversity, microclimate etc.

Excessive energy consumption and water use are the prime causes of environmental damage in the case of sports halls. At present, an average of about 400,000 kWh of energy per year are required for operating one hall in Germany, for instance.

Practical examples introduction to the sports goods industry marketing essay that there is considerable potential in sports facilities for saving energy and water. In order to exhaust this potential, modern, resource saving technology must be installed and user habits must be changed. Due to the large savings made as a result, investments in energy and water often pay off within relatively short periods.

Building renovation, necessary in any case, and new building plans provide ideal opportunities for installing environment-friendly technology. If environmental aspects are to be considered regularly and not just sporadically, operators of sports facilities need systematic environmental management. Essential elements of such management include the appointment of an environmental officer, mandatory consideration of environmental aspects when any decision is made, the introduction of eco-controlling, as well as regular environmental training courses for staff.

By saving valuable resources, sports facilities designed and run on an environmentally compatible basis can contribute enormously towards sustainable development and thus also to the implementation of Agenda 21. This applies in particular to climate protection through reduction of C02 emissions. To summarise, the following steps are important for making sports facilities more ecological: Initiating and supporting green consulting services for sports facility operators Tying government and association funding for sports facilities grants and loans to the fulfillment of environmental standards Considering to a greater extent the possibility of making use of existing areas and buildings for sports facilities Incorporating environmental management into the work of sports administrations, clubs, associations and commercial sports operators.

The reasons are manifold. Sport has not only grown in general — another important development is the constant growth in diversity. New types of sport frequently generate the need for a greater range of different facilities.

Introduction to the sports goods industry marketing essay

Reaching new locations sports facilities or country areas demands greater mobility. This is particularly true in the case of activities pursued in nature and the countryside, to which soaring numbers of people have been drawn over many years. Since most people have to travel short or long distances in order to pursue these kinds of activities, sports and tourism are today more closely linked than ever before.