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Limitations put on various forms of contribution essay

Saul McLeodpublished 2014 Before you write your essay it's important to analyse the task and understand exactly what the essay question is asking. It is possible your lecturer will give you some advice - pay attention to this as it will help you plan your answer. Next conduct preliminary reading based on your lecture notes.

At this stage it's not crucial to have a robust understanding of key theories or studies, but you should at least have a general 'gist' of the literature. After reading, plan a response to the task. This plan could be in the form of a mind map, a summary table, or by writing a core statement which encompass the entire argument of your essay in just a few sentences.

After writing your plan conduct supplementary reading and refine your plan and make it more detailed. It is tempting to skip these preliminary steps and just write the first draft while reading at the same time.

However, reading and planning will make the essay writing process easier, quicker, and ensure a higher quality essay is produced.

Now let us look at what constitutes a good essay in psychology. There are a number of important features. A Global Structure - limitations put on various forms of contribution essay the material in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas. The essay should 'flow'. The introduction, main body and conclusion should all be linked. Each paragraph should comprise a main theme which are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence.

Knowledge and Understanding - recognise, recall and show understanding on a range of scientific material that accurately reflects the main theoretical perspectives. Evidence of independent thinking, insight and evaluation of the evidence. Quality of Written Communication - writing clearly and succinctly with appropriate use of paragraphs, spelling and grammar.

All sources referenced accurately and in line with APA guidelines. In the main body of the essay every paragraph should demonstrate both knowledge and critical evaluation. There should also be an appropriate balance between these two essay components. Most students make the mistake of writing too much knowledge and not enough evaluation which is the difficult bit. It is best to structure your essay according to key themes.

How to Structure a Theory of Knowledge Essay

Themes are illustrated and developed through a number of points supported by evidence. Choose relevant points only, ones that most reveal the theme or help to make a convincing and interesting argument. Don't make the mistake of writing all the information you know regarding a particular topic.

You need to be concise, and clearly articulate your argument. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences. Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument. It would be useful at the beginning of each paragraph if you explicitly outlined the theme being discussed.

Try not to overuse quotations in your essays. It is more appropriate to use original limitations put on various forms of contribution essay to demonstrate your understanding. Psychology is a science so you must support your ideas with evidence not your own personal opinion. If you are discussing a theory or research study make sure you cite the source of the information.

Bowlby 1951 claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i. Or Maslow 1943 stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs.

When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on. As a general rule make sure there is at least one citation i. Remember to answer the essay question. Underline the key words in the essay title.

Don't make the mistake of simply writing everything you know of a particular topic, be selective. Each paragraph in your essay should contribute to answering the essay question. Critical Evaluation In simple terms this means outlining the strengths and limitations of a theory or research study.

There are many ways you can critically evaluate: Is the sample biased or can we generalize the findings to other populations? What are the strengths and limitations of the method used and data obtained? Be careful to ensure that any methodological criticisms are justified and not trite. Rather than hunting for weaknesses in every study; only highlight limitations which make you doubt the conclusions that the authors have drawn — e.

Compare or contrast different theories - Outline how the theories are similar and how they differ. Debates or perspectives - Refer to debates such as nature or nurture, reductionism vs. For example, would they agree or disagree with a theory or the findings of the study? What are the ethical issues of the research? Gender bias - If research is biased towards men or women it does not provide a clear view of the behavior that has been studied.

A dominantly male perspective is known as an androcentric bias. Does the theory or study being discussed judge other cultures by Western standards?

  • Saul McLeod , published 2014 Before you write your essay it's important to analyse the task and understand exactly what the essay question is asking;
  • Saul McLeod , published 2014 Before you write your essay it's important to analyse the task and understand exactly what the essay question is asking.

The main criterion is that benefits must outweigh costs. But benefits are almost always to humans and costs to animals. Animal research also raises the issue of extrapolation. Don't just write a shopping list of brief one or two sentence evaluation points. Instead make sure you expand on your points, remember, quality of evaluation is most important than quantity.

When you are writing an evaluation paragraph use the PEC system. Explain how and why the point is relevant. Are they positive or negative? For Example Point It is argued that psychoanalytic therapy is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority. Explain Because psychoanalytic therapy involves talking and gaining insight, and is costly and time-consuming, it is argued that it is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority.

Evidence suggests psychoanalytic therapy works best if the client is motivated and has a positive attitude. Furthermore, the levels of dependency of depressed clients mean that transference is more likely to develop.

Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students

Using Research Studies in your Essays Research studies can either be knowledge or evaluation. If you refer to the procedures and findings of a study, this shows knowledge and understanding. If you comment on what the studies shows, and what it supports and challenges about the theory in question, this shows evaluation. Writing an Introduction It is often best to write your introduction when you have finished the main body of the essay, so that you have a good understanding to the topic area.

Ideally the introduction should; Identify the subject of the essay and define the key terms. Let the reader know how you will focus your essay by identifying the main themes to be discussed. Introductions are very important as first impressions count and they can create a halo effect in the mind of the lecturer grading your essay.

The step-by-step method

If you start off well then you are more likely to be forgiven for the odd mistake later one. Writing a Conclusion So many students either forget to write a conclusion or fail to give it the attention it deserves.

IELTS Advantage Disadvantage Model Essay

Also, you might like to suggest what future research may need to be conducted and why read the discussion section of journal articles for this. If you are unsure of what to write read the essay question and answer it in one paragraph.

Points that unite or embrace several themes can be used to great effect as part of your conclusion. When you have finished the first draft of your essay you must check if it 'flows'. This is an important feature of quality of communication along with spelling and grammar.

This means that the paragraphs follow a logical order like the chapters in a novel. Have a global structure with themes arranged in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas.

You might want to rearrange cut and paste paragraphs to a different position in your essay if they don't appear to fit in with the essay structure. To improve the flow of your essay make sure the last sentence of one paragraph links to first sentence of the next paragraph.

This will help the essay flow and make it easier to read. Repeating citations unnecessarily disrupts the flow of an essay. Referencing The reference section is the list of all the sources cited in the essay in alphabetical order.

It is not a bibliography a list of the books you used. If you have been using textbooks this is easy as the references are usually at the back of the book and you can just copy them down. If you have been using websites then you may have a problem as they might not provide a reference section for you to copy.

References need to be set out APA style: Journal Articles Author, A. Journal Title, volume number issue numberpage numbers A simple way to write your reference section is use Google scholar. Just type the name and date of the psychologist in the search box and click on the 'cite' link.

Next, copy and paste the APA reference into the reference section of your essay. Once again remember that references need to be in alphabetical order according to surname.