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Management complement and supporting professional firms marketing essay

Sales forecasting Product Subsystem The product subsystem helps to plan the introduction of new products. Continually bringing new products to market is vital in today's competitive environment of rapid change. The product subsystem should support balancing the degree of risk in the overall new-product portfolio, with more aggressive competitors assuming higher degrees of risk for a potentially higher payoff. Although decisions regarding the introduction of new products are unstructured, information systems support this process in several ways: Professional support systems assist designers in their knowledge work 2.

DSSs are used to evaluate proposed new products 3. With a DSS, a marketing manager can score the desirability of a new product. Electronic meeting systems help bring the expertise of people dispersed in space and time to bear on the problem 5. Information derived from marketing intelligence and research is vital in evaluating new product ideas.

Place Subsystem The place subsystem assists the decision makers in making the product available to the customer at the right place at the right time. The place subsystem helps plan the distribution channels for the product and track their performance.

The use of information technology has dramatically increased the availability of information on product movement in the distribution channel. Point-of-sale POS scanning 3. Electronic data interchange EDI 4. Supports just-in-time product delivery and customized delivery Promotion Subsystem The promotion subsystem is often the most elaborate in the marketing information system, since it supports both personal selling and advertising. Media selection packages assist in selecting a mix of avenues to persuade the potential purchaser, including direct mail, television, print media, and the electronic media such as the Internet and the WEB in particular.

The effectiveness of the selected media mix is monitored and its composition is continually adjusted. Database marketing relies on the accumulation and use of extensive databases to segment potential customers and reach tem with personalized promotional information. The role of telemarketing, marketing over the telephone, has increased. Telemarketing calls are well supported by information technology. Sales management is thoroughly supported with information technology.

Customer profitability analysis help identify high-profit and high-growth customers and target marketing efforts in order to retain and develop these accounts.

Sales force automationinvolves equipping salespeople with portable computers tied into the corporate information systems. This gives the salespeople instantaneous access to information and frees them from the reporting paperwork. This increases selling time and the level of performance.

Access to corporate databases is sometimes accompanied by access to corporate expertise, either by being able to contact the experts or by using expert systems that help specify the product meeting customer requirements.

Management Complement And Supporting Professional Firms Marketing Essay

Price Subsystem Pricing decisions find a degree of support from DSSs and access to databases that contain industry prices. These highly unstructured decisions are made in pursuit of the companys pricing objectives. General strategies range from profit maximization to forgoing a part of the management complement and supporting professional firms marketing essay in order to increase a market share.

Information systems provide an opportunity to finely segment customer groups, and charge different prices depending on the combination of products and services provided, as well as the circumstances of the sale transaction.

Sales Forecasting Based on the planned marketing mix and outstanding orders, sales are forecast and a full marketing plan is developed. Sale forecasting is an area where any quantitative methods employed must be tempered with human insight and experience. The actual sales will depend to a large degree on the dynamics of the environment.

Qualitative techniques are generally used for environmental forecasting - an attempt to predict the social, economic, legal, and technological environment in which the company will try to realize its plans. Sales forecasting uses numerous techniques, which include: Group decision making techniques are used to elicit broad expert opinion 2.

Scenario analysis in which each scenario in this process is a plausible future environment 3. Extrapolation of trends and cycles through a time-series analysis. The new marketplace calls for manufacturing that are: Lean - highly efficient, using fewer input resources in production through better engineering and through production processes that rely on low inventories and result in less waste.

Agile - fit for time-based competition. Both the new product design and order fulfilment are drastically shortened. Flexible - able to adjust the product to a customer's preferences rapidly and cost effectively. Managed for quality - by measuring quality throughout the production process and following world standards, manufacturers treat quality as a necessity and not a high-price option. Structure of Manufacturing Information Systems [Figure 12. Manufacturing information systems are among the most difficult both to develop and to implement.

TPSs are embedded in the production process or in other company processes. The data provided by the transaction processing systems are used by management support subsystems, which are tightly integrated and interdependent.

Manufacturing information subsystems include: Product design and engineering 2. Facilities planning, production costing, logistics and inventory subsystems Product Design and Engineering Product design and engineering are widely supported today by computer-aided design CAD and computer-aided engineering CAE systems.

CAD systems assist the designer with automatic calculations and display of surfaces while storing the design information in databases. The produced designs are subject to processing with CAE systems to ensure their quality, safety, manufacturability, and cost-effectiveness. Product Scheduling Production scheduling is the heart of the manufacturing information system.

This complex subsystem has to ensure that an appropriate combination of human, machinery, and material resources will be provided at an appropriate time in order to manufacture the goods. Production scheduling and the ancillary processes are today frequently controlled with a manufacturing resource planning system as the main informational tool.

This elaborate software converts the sales forecast for the plants products into a detailed production plan and further into a master schedule of production. Computer integrated manufacturing CIM is a strategy through which a manufacturer takes control of the entire manufacturing process. The process starts with CAD and CAE and continues on the factory floor where robots and numerically controlled machinery are installed - and thus computer-aided manufacturing CAM is implemented.

A manufacturing system based on this concept can turn out very small batches of a particular product as cost-effectively as a traditional production line can turn out millions of identical products. A full-fledged CIM is extremely difficult to implement; indeed, many firms have failed in their attempts to do so.

Quality Control The quality control subsystem of a manufacturing information system relies on the management complement and supporting professional firms marketing essay collected on the shop floor by the sensors embedded in the process control systems. Total quality management TQM is a management technique for continuously improving the performance of all members and units of a firm to ensure customer satisfaction.

Management complement and supporting professional firms marketing essay

In particular, the principles of TQM state that quality comes from improving the design and manufacturing process, rather than Ainspecting out defective products. The foundation of quality is also understanding and reducing variation in the overall manufacturing process. Facilities Planning, Production Costing, Logistics and Inventory Subsystems Among the higher-level decision making supported by manufacturing information systems are facilities planning - locating the sites for manufacturing plants, deciding on their production capacities, and laying out the plant floors.

Manufacturing management requires a cost control program, relying on the information systems. Managing the raw-materials, packaging, and the work in progress inventory is a responsibility of the manufacturing function.

  • Media selection packages assist in selecting a mix of avenues to persuade the potential purchaser, including direct mail, television, print media, and the electronic media such as the Internet and the WEB in particular;
  • Information systems provide an opportunity to finely segment customer groups, and charge different prices depending on the combination of products and services provided, as well as the circumstances of the sale transaction;
  • The place subsystem helps plan the distribution channels for the product and track their performance.

In some cases, inventory management is combined with the general logistics systems, which plan and control the arrival of purchased goods into the firm as well as shipments to the customers. The components of the accounting system include: