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Motivations role in a sporting performance essay

Free essays and research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Need a custom Essay? Check the price and Order Now! Motivation is continually changing in sports. To recognize how individual motivation is developed and to discover the most effective ways to influence motivation, coaches and sports psychologists acknowledge not only characteristics of an athlete but also the social environmental and physical environmental conditions in which the athlete participates.

Hence, no single strategy or view is used to explain motivation. The best approach incorporates individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on motivation. Personal factors involved in the interaction of athletes with the sports environment may include physical fitness, physical skill, perceptual skill, and psychological skill. Furthermore, sports are often rooted in cultural traditions.

Where an athlete lives and plays influences motivation. Accordingly, economic conditions, socioeconomic status, and educational and family structures also influence motivation. Physical environmental factors, including convenient and accessible training facilities, enjoyable scenery, and weather, may also influence motivation. Intentions In order to discuss principles of motivation, we must assume that athletes are actively involved in decision motivations role in a sporting performance essay about what behavior they will engage in.

  1. This multi-faceted self-directedness operates through self-regulatory processes that link thought to action.
  2. Where an athlete lives and plays influences motivation.
  3. Furthermore, sports activity that is perceived to be interesting or challenging, that provides feelings of pleasure and satisfaction, or that is performed for its own sake rather than for external reward induces intrinsic motivation.
  4. Enjoyment based in part on feelings of competence and perceived control is essential for enhancing motivation and continued participation.

Athletes can choose to behave through the exercise of self-influence. Agency embodies the endowments, belief systems, self-regulatory capabilities and distributed structures and functions through which personal influence is exercised, rather than residing as a discrete entity in a particular place.

The core features of agency enable people to play a part in their self-development, adaptation, and self-renewal with changing times.

Motivation essay

Bandura 2001, 2 Behavioral intention is a strong influence on motivation. Intentions reflect a decision to enact a particular behavior e. An intention is a representation of a future course of action to be performed.

It is not simply an expectation or prediction of future actions but a proactive commitment to bringing them about. Intentions and actions are different aspects of a functional relation separated in time. It is, therefore, meaningful to speak of intentions grounded in self-motivators affecting the likelihood of actions at a future point in time. Bandura 2001, 7 Hence, we can view intention as a convincing predictor of behavior and influence on motivation.

Self-Efficacy Beliefs Self-efficacy is a theoretical construct that has received a great deal of support as a significant influence on motivation. Self-efficacy represents a form of situation-specific self-confidence. Efficacy beliefs are at the foundation of this personal agency. The likelihood that an athlete will participate in a given sport depends on her beliefs about whether she can perform the skills necessary for that sport.

Unless the athlete believes she can produce chosen results by her actions, she has little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of hardship. Other factors may operate as motivators in sports but must be rooted in the core belief that the athlete has the power to produce effects by her own actions.

Athletes with high levels of self-efficacy persevere when faced with obstacles or negative circumstances. In contrast, athletes with low levels of self-efficacy fail to overcome similar obstacles. Efficacy beliefs play a pivotal role in motivation and also influence whether athletes think optimistically or pessimistically.

  • Athletes who enjoy their chosen sport will stick with it longer than those who do not;
  • Furthermore, when an athlete is cognitively focused in the present, expected future events are transformed into current motivators of behavior;
  • Furthermore, sports are often rooted in cultural traditions;
  • Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation;
  • In addition, under certain circumstances an overly high probability of success can be detrimental to motivation;
  • Testing relationships from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation using flow as a motivational consequence.

Therefore, efficacy beliefs may enhance or hinder sports motivation. Expectancy In addition to self-efficacy, outcome expectations influence motivation.

The likelihood that athletes will engage in a behavior e. In examining any theory related to motivation, we must understand the relative importance of the activity to the athlete. In the self-efficacy model a strong relationship exists between doing something and seeing the results. However, the model itself excludes the relative importance of the outcome to the athlete.

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The expectancy theory proposes that expectations can influence motivation. The first element of expectancy theory is valence or the relative importance of the outcome of the situation. Positive expectations for success produce subsequent positive effects. Note that if an athlete does not value the outcome or believes that his probability of success is zero, then his motivation will be insignificant.

In addition, under certain circumstances an overly high probability of success can be detrimental to motivation.

  1. Many studies during the last thirty years have supported the effectiveness of goal-setting theory in various sports settings.
  2. This here-and-now focus must involve effective concentration on the task at hand.
  3. Therefore, efficacy beliefs may enhance or hinder sports motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346.

Athletes form outcome expectations from observing the sports environment in which they participate as well as the outcomes from the actions they take. Athletes pursue courses of action that are likely to produce positive outcomes and avoid courses of action that are likely to produce negative outcomes. Athletes who believe they have control over events in their lives are more likely to behave in accord with expectancy theory.

However, athletes who believe that they are pawns of fate do not. According to expectancy theory, athletes are motivated not only by their goals but also by how attainable they think these goals are.

  • The influence of goals, commitment, self-efficacy and self-satisfaction on motor performance;
  • The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition.

Valence is the satisfaction the athlete anticipates from an outcome. Expectancy is the expectation that effort will affect performance. According to this theory, motivation is high when valence is high, instrumentality is clear, and expectancy is strong. Self-Determination Athletes with a self-determined motivational profile engage motivations role in a sporting performance essay sports because of personal choice or because they derive pleasure and satisfaction from the experience.

To further develop self-determination theory, Valler and proposed the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In the model motivation may be intrinsic, extrinsic, or amotivated. This type of motivation comes from within the athlete regardless of outside influences. Intrinsically motivated athletes possess greater perceptions of physical competence or participate in sports for the feelings of self-determination, perceptions of control, and satisfaction that the sports provide.

Intrinsic motivation is fostered when feelings of competence are increased or perceptions of self-determination and internal control are prominent.

Furthermore, sports activity that is perceived to be interesting or challenging, that provides feelings of pleasure and satisfaction, or that is performed for its own sake rather than for external reward induces intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation, however, results from behavior performed to gain some substantial reward or to avoid negative consequences rather than to reap the inherent pleasure it provides. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside the athlete, most commonly from others through either positive support or negative reinforcements.

The fundamental goal of such behaviors is to receive something positive and to avoid something negative. Amotivation is the complete lack of motivation. Feelings of incompetence and lack of control often characterize amotivation. Enjoyment Enjoyment a form of intrinsic motivation is an important influence on sports motivation. Enjoyment based in part on feelings of competence and perceived control is essential for enhancing motivation and continued participation.

Athletes continue to participate because they enjoy what they are doing. Feelings of enjoyment clearly play an important role in sports motivation.

Athletes who enjoy their chosen sport will stick with it longer than those who do not. Goal Setting Goal setting has long been a part of the study of motivation and coaching in sports psychology. Many studies during the last thirty years have supported the effectiveness of goal-setting theory in various sports settings. Goals can be divided into outcome goals, performance goals, and process goals.

Intentions

Research in goal setting indicates that subjects with easy goals usually have higher expectations for reaching their goals but perform worse than do subjects assigned to difficult goals.

A relationship between probability of success and incentive value of success appears to exist in that success in an easy task is not valued as highly as success in a difficult one. Additionally, multiple-goal strategies are advantageous for sports performance when compared with strategies that do not combine different types of goals. Specifically, the benefit of developing a process orientation toward goal setting has been well documented.

Process goals are most beneficially used within a hierarchy of goals that should also include performance and outcome goals. The key to this type of goal setting is for the athlete to focus on what she needs to do as opposed to what she wants to happen. Performance and outcome goals can be set with process goals as the means to achieving the desired outcome.

Process goals are simply the means chosen to implement performance and outcome goals. The function of goal setting is to institute and give direction to action. Goals serve as a motivational tool by engaging self-evaluation in the activity itself. Athletes often use journals or training logs as a means of self-evaluation, feedback, and continued motivation.

Motivation in Sports Essay

Technological and computer advances allow athletes to record, share, and analyze training information i. Current actions influence future actions through performance comparisons.

  • Athletes pursue courses of action that are likely to produce positive outcomes and avoid courses of action that are likely to produce negative outcomes;
  • Athletes form outcome expectations from observing the sports environment in which they participate as well as the outcomes from the actions they take;
  • Agency thus involves not only the deliberative ability to make choices and action plans, but the ability to give shape to appropriate courses of action and to motivate and regulate their execution.

With this immediate information and feedback available, evaluation based on individual and coaching guidelines gives further direction to athletic pursuits. This evaluation helps athletes sustain their efforts toward further goal achievement and continued motivation.

Intentions and goals must be revised and even reconsidered, depending on new information or changes in the sports environment e. Attention to Action To increase motivation, athletes must use a here-and-now focus. Athletes do well over time when they use a task-oriented approach toward training and competition.

Task orientations are associated with intrinsic motivation. Although the past may influence reasons for current behavior e. Furthermore, when an athlete is cognitively focused in the present, expected future events are transformed into current motivators of behavior. When focused in the present, behavior e. Athletes must choose to behave and focus in the present e.

One key to reaching full athletic potential is to develop the skill to keep previous successes and failures in perspective and to view things with a here-and-now focus. This here-and-now focus must involve effective concentration on the task at hand. Having adopted an intention and an action plan, one cannot simply sit back and wait for the appropriate performances to appear.

Agency thus involves not only the deliberative ability to make choices and action plans, but the ability to give shape to appropriate courses of action and to motivate and regulate their execution.

This multi-faceted self-directedness operates through self-regulatory processes that link thought to action.