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Plato and the censure of art essay

Schleiermacher, Introductions to the Dialogues of Plato ; G.

Plato on censoring artists — a summary

Scholars denouncing it as inauthentic either by argument or exclusion include Wilamowitz, Schleiermacher, Ast, Zellar, Heidel, Jowett, Apelt, Hamilton, and Cairns; those who accept it as genuine, but flawed, include Bekker, Yxem, Grote, Grube, Shorey, and Friedlander. Clitophon, edited by Simon R. This work is a revision of Slings' privately published dissertation, A Commentary on the Platonic Clitophon Amsterdam, A fine line-by-line commentary for students of Greek language and philosophy has also been published: See also, the review by Christopher Rowe, in his "Book Notes: DemetriouSection IV.

Originally published as "The Case against Socrates: This later version, revised in response to the essays of Roochnik and Blits, is the one reprinted here cf.

Like medicine, as opposed to gymnastics -- "the road not taken in the dialogue" 67, 37n13, 84n Cleitophon is one of the very few Platonic dialogues never to mention philosophy 68, Originally published as "Socratic Teaching and Justice: The word techne "appears with more frequency in the Cleitophon than in any other dialogue" 15n5.

Plato on censoring artists — a summary

One of the more striking observations by Blits is that the rational technocratic regime envisioned and desired by Cleitophon "foreshadows the modern or contemporary view of scientific education. See the quotation at the head of this review. The willful failure of Socrates to try to 'teach' Cleitophon -- on account of "the defects of his nature" cf.

  • It is the further contention of this paper that they are intimately related in terms of the way that they must be re-interpreted in order to be properly understood, and to avoid the criticisms directed against their standard formulations;
  • Thus, it is actually not a re-creation of reality, but rather the bringing into existence of a duplicate of a previous state of reality, minus those elements taken to construct the duplicate which isnecessarily one-half of that previous state;
  • The maker of the flute will get correct belief by talking to users of the flute.

Bruell favorably compares Cleitophon with Meno in the sense that Cleitophon, unlike Meno, is not "lacking in self awareness" Bruell [] Cleitophon's only use of the word "nature" -- in a dialogue overflowing with references to techne -- bears this out; for in his final request Cleitophon begs Socrates to aid him in understanding the kind of soul he has "by nature" and the kind of "therapeutic treatment" it needs c8-d9. Bruell and Orwin are most attentive to the paradoxical implications of the suggestion that "among the things which the soul must learn [or acquire knowledge of how] to use is a soul a5 " Bruell [] Without resorting to the "elegant remedy" which explains away the uneasiness occasioned by the end of the dialogue by placing the Cleitophon before the Republic, Bruell speaks quietly of the possibility that Cleitophon's radical relativism -- i.

In the present revision, only Sections I and VI are significantly expanded.

  1. Marx does reject liberal talk of rights and the rule of law, but he does so precisely because he understands that such talk is symptomatic of the incomplete realization of the liberal goal of self-determination. Also, the ideal individual should indeed be self-unified and have self-control, and Plato was right that, on the whole, such individuals will not arise except in socially harmonious conditions.
  2. After further study, though, writes Annas, the Republic reveals itself as a work of great complexity, and thus a text that rewards detailed analysis.
  3. In its original form the essay made only one or two passing references to modernity.

Kremer defines legal positivism as a doctrine of arbitrary "conformism" and "irrational commitment" to the law as justice -- "without recourse" to god, nature, or reason All four of the contributors are more or less in agreement that the limitations of Cleitophon's character are the key to unlocking the "riddle" of Socrates' silence, as well as the "distortion" of Socratic arguments apparent in Cleitophon's purportedly direct quotation or paraphrase of them.

Kremer claims that the extreme of legal positivism is "the most popularly held opinion today, as it was in the late stages of Athenian democracy" That it is also "the most obvious, the most natural, thesis regarding justice" is an argument which may be traced back to the conflation of Thrasymachus' view of justice in the Republic with the clarification of that view proposed by Cleitophon -- namely, that "the just is identical with the lawful or legal, or with what the customs or laws of the city prescribe" d5-e6.

Kremer's debt here to Strauss is again left unpaid: This book is published in a series devoted to "Applications of Political Theory".

In its original form the essay made only one or two passing references to modernity: The present revision is peppered with modern touchstones, including references to Machiavelli, Bacon, Hobbes, Nietzsche, Marx, nihilism, post-modernism, Marxists, Stalinists, and even "liberals" -- all of which occur in the new Preface and Introduction, in addition to plato and the censure of art essay completely new or reworked sections of the essay see pp.

  • Bissell July 20, 1974 The purpose of this paper is to critically consider two related theories of the nature of art;
  • Like medicine, as opposed to gymnastics -- "the road not taken in the dialogue" 67, 37n13, 84n

As a means to understanding the dialogue itself rather than its contemporary relevancereaders are likely to find Kremer's detailed discussions of the dialogue much more helpful and persuasive, such as Cleitophon's distortion of the recognizable Socratic stance that injustice is involuntary, harmony is health, and discord is sickness; the limitations of justice abstractly conceived as a purely rational and practical "Promethean" art; the purpose of Plato's allusions to Aeschylean tragedy and Aristophanic comedy as well as poetry's representation of the fundamental spiritedness of love of one's own and the civic life of a polis; and a satisfying account of Cleitophon's overly-optimistic comparison of Socrates b to the Apollonian deus ex machina of Greek tragedy.

On this last point: Although there are no direct references to the text of Nietzsche in Kremer's revised essay, it seems fair for him to identify the collapse of Cleitophon's initial optimism in and subsequent ire with his Promethean Socrates "a false god"with Nietzsche's disdainful criticism of "the transcendental justice of Aeschylus [which] is degraded to the superficial and insolent principle of 'poetic justice' with its customary deus ex machina" Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy, translated by W.

  • If it is not necessary, the question also rises as to whether an image of an entity may not be inherently more capable of serving as a re-creation of reality, than an image of something other than an entity when both types of image are possible to the art-form;
  • Summary Our concern here, though more restricted than those outlined in the close of the previous section, is much broader in scope;
  • A fine line-by-line commentary for students of Greek language and philosophy has also been published;
  • Furthermore, the changes of nature are teleological;
  • In other words, art is a type of hazardous fallacy;
  • Besides, a picture is neither a person nor a vase of flowers.

Kaufmann [Vintage, ] Distortions of line spacing and the use of the Greek font in Blits' essay. Slings name is misspelled -- and his book mentioned without citation -- the very first time it appears ix. Some typos in the earlier versions of the essays have been corrected, while others persist and new ones are introduced: Finally, let librarians be warned that at least in the copy sent to this reviewer the Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data on the reverse of the title page is completely wrong, giving the full catalog information for a different book.

On platos critique of the arts essay