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The collapse of the twin towers of the world trade center essay

The grandson of Standard Oil founder John D. The Port Authority had been chartered in 1921 by New York and New Jersey to build and operate all transportation terminals and facilities within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty.

World Trade Center

After a bitter legal battle with representatives of the Radio Row merchants, the Port Authority won the right to continue its plan. Instead of the traditional stacked glass-and-steel box construction of many New York skyscrapers, Yamasaki worked with structural engineers to come up with a revolutionary design: Floor trusses connected this exterior steel lattice to the central steel core of the building.

Wien even ran an ad in The New York Times in May 1968 predicting that a commercial airliner was likely to fly into the towers. Plans had already been made to guard against such an accident—which had happened in July 1945 with a smaller plane at the Empire State—and the towers were designed to be safe in a collision with a fully loaded 707 plane the largest existing plane at the time.

It was assumed such a plane would have to be lost in fog for such an event to occur; a terrorist attack was never envisioned.

  • This was part of the terrorists' plans so that the planes would be filled with fuel for a long flight;
  • Many had to deal with the death of friends and loved-ones and the loss of jobs and businesses;
  • The first plane ripped a hole in the north tower from the 94th to the 98th floors, causing massive structural damage and igniting some 3,000 of the 10,000 gallons of jet fuel the plane was carrying.

Excavating machines dug a three-foot-wide trench down to the bedrock, and as dirt and rock were removed, they were replaced by slurry: Workers then lowered a 22-ton, seven-story-high steel cage into the trench and filled it with concrete by using a long pipe. As the concrete flowed in, it displaced the bentonite slurry. By making more than 150 of these slurry trench segments, workers enclosed an area two blocks wide and four blocks long.

All in all, 1 million cubic yards of landfill had to be removed. At the end of construction, these cranes had to be disassembled and brought down by elevator.

  1. The Attacks It was early in the morning on September 11 when the hijackers took control of the four airplanes. Listen to a recorded reading of this page.
  2. Instead of the traditional stacked glass-and-steel box construction of many New York skyscrapers, Yamasaki worked with structural engineers to come up with a revolutionary design.
  3. President Bush said after the attacks that "We will not waver; we will not falter, and we will not fail.
  4. They hijacked four passenger planes and used them as weapons to crash into buildings. Workers then lowered a 22-ton, seven-story-high steel cage into the trench and filled it with concrete by using a long pipe.

When the towers were finished, each one would have 97 passenger elevators, capable of carrying loads of up to 10,000 pounds at speeds of up to 1,600 feet per minute. In all, the towers were assembled from more than 200,000 pieces of steel manufactured around the country, 3,000 miles of electrical wiring, 425,000 cubic yards of concrete, 40,000 doors, 43,600 windows and six acres of marble.

Construction went on until April 1973, when the five-acre outdoor plaza, dominated by a 25-foot-tall bronze sculpture by Fritz Koenig, was completed. Still, the towers held an incomparable mystique. They inspired incredible stunts, beginning in August 1974, when Philippe Petit walked a high wire between the two towers. The Port Authority loved these stunts because they endeared the towers to the public and made them seem like giant toys.

They worked at turning the towers into an attraction, adding the Windows on the World restaurant, which opened on the 107th floor of the north tower in April 1976 and was an immediate hit. Smaller importers-exporters were now being pushed out by rising rents, making way for major businesses. Six Islamic extremists were tried and convicted in connection with the plot. The towers reopened 20 days after the bombing with new security measures in place, including restrictions to parking lot access and electronic identification badges for building tenants.

At the time, over 99 percent of the 10. The first plane ripped a hole in the north tower from the 94th to the 98th floors, causing massive structural damage and igniting some 3,000 of the 10,000 gallons of jet fuel the plane was carrying. The second plane hit the south tower at an even faster speed, striking the corner and gashing the building from the 84th to the 78th floors.

US History

The damage done at each point of impact forced the physical weight of the towers to be redistributed, and the undamaged part below the hole had to support the floors above. At the same time, the fires raging in both buildings weakened the steel trusses holding up each floor. With damage to a greater number of floors lower down on the building, the south tower gave way first, crumbling to the ground at 9: The north tower collapsed less than a half hour later, at 10: Start your free trial today.