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The immigration of latinos and hispanics in the american region essay

The growth rate of the Latino population was nearly 4. By 2000 Latinos accounted for one in eight people in the United States, compared with one in 11 people in 1990. Destination States for Latinos The Latino population is concentrated in particular states.

The 10 states with the largest Latino populations in 2000 were home to slightly more than 80 percent of U.

  1. Pew Res Cent, Hisp Trends.
  2. Furthermore, although Latinos living in neighborhoods with a higher concentration of Latino immigrants reported more favorable healthy food environments, they also reported worse built environment features e. A nascent body of research is uncovering how transnationalism may affect health, particularly smoking, obesity, and physical activity 3.
  3. Thus, research on community contexts presents many opportunities and fruitful avenues to pursue to further advance research on acculturation and health among Latino populations. Joint effects models 41 , 58 , 64 , 108 and complex systems approaches 10 , 50 offer fruitful avenues to pursue in these endeavors.
  4. Evidence of the extent to which neighborhoods pattern health generally, and more specifically, how neighborhood contexts and acculturation relate to health in Latino populations, remains scant; existing research to date indicates mixed results.
  5. A nascent body of research is uncovering how transnationalism may affect health, particularly smoking, obesity, and physical activity 3. Other issues related to acculturation and discrimination warrant mention.

Latinos see Figure 1. These states represent traditional hub areas for Latinos, with all but one Washington being among the top-10 most populous Latino states in 1990 as well.

Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research

California and Texas alone accounted for one of every two Latinos in the United States. The Latino population has grown quite rapidly in states that have traditionally had relatively few Latinos see Figure 2.

Among the 10 states with the most rapid growth in the Latino population, the percentage increases ranged from a low of 155 percent in Nebraska to 394 percent in North Carolina. This growth has primarily been associated with the restructuring of the meat-processing industry and the expansion of low-wage jobs in the South and the Midwest,2 primarily in nonmetropolitan areas.

  • Neighborhoods and Health A relatively consistent body of evidence indicates that the neighborhood context, or the places where individuals live, patterns a range of health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease CVD and cardiovascular risk factors;
  • Evidence of the extent to which neighborhoods pattern health generally, and more specifically, how neighborhood contexts and acculturation relate to health in Latino populations, remains scant; existing research to date indicates mixed results;
  • Recent national policies on health care access, for example, highlight how these uniquely and disproportionately impact Latino communities 87;
  • Only recently has this perspective been integrated in acculturation research;
  • First, some marked changes in the theoretical frameworks that guide acculturation research suggest that acculturation is not a static, linear process of cultural adaptation to a new host society but rather is one that involves a dynamic exchange between new members of a society and the host members 105;
  • Cognitive mechanisms might also be at play, including social comparisons that help immigrants deal with stigmatized identities.

Latinos and the Future U. Population Over the last several decades, the racial and ethnic composition of the U. Minorities are increasing their presence in the United States and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. The Latino population is driving these transformations. While today one of every eight residents of the United States is Latino, it is projected that Latinos could account for one of every five residents by 2035, one of every four by 2055, and one of every three by 2100.

Latinos are already having a significant impact on the various societal institutions and on all segments of society in the United States. Although Latinos represented hardly a blip on the national radar screen only a few decades ago, demographic processes have made Latinos critical to the future social and economic direction of the United States. Ongoing immigration has significantly affected the Latino experience in the United States. The continued flows of Latino immigrants ensure that the Spanish language and diverse Latino cultures will endure in the United States.

The combination of established and newcomer Latinos in the United States further enhances the diversity that exists across and within Latino groups. The growth of the Latino population has also led to a blurring of many boundaries. Transnational migration has blurred international and identity boundaries. Immigration has blurred the boundaries associated with nativity, even within families.

  • Other belief systems and cognitions may shift or play a role in acculturation processes;
  • The continued flows of Latino immigrants ensure that the Spanish language and diverse Latino cultures will endure in the United States;
  • Thus, exposure to discrimination, not acculturation per se, may account for the observed declines in health or increases in risky health behaviors among Latinos.

The increasing use of Spanish through its dominance in foreign-language instruction in colleges and universities, its entrance into mainstream popular culture, and the bilingual context in which many Latinos operate have also blurred language boundaries. But the experiences of the various Latino groups in the United States have been quite different, and even the blurring of place and linguistic boundaries has not eliminated one important distinction.

Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are the two groups that were initially incorporated into the United States through warfare. In contrast, other Latino groups have come to the United States as voluntary immigrants, either escaping political persecution or in search of economic opportunity.

By and large, these groups have tended to fare better socially and economically, the exception being Dominicans and foreign-born Central Americans.

INTRODUCTION

The Growing Impact of Latinos — Culturally, Economically, and Politically The Latino population needs to be seen as a valuable resource for this country. For example, the business community will increasingly rely on Latinos as entrepreneurs, employees, investors, and consumers. The bilingual and bicultural nature of the Latino population also makes Latinos a valuable resource as the U. The higher education system will increasingly find Latinos among the ranks of potential students and educators.

Political institutions will find that Latinos will play an increasingly powerful role in the outcome of elections, both as voters and as political candidates. Additionally, the health care system will increasingly see Latinos as health care recipients and providers.

Religious institutions will find that their potential adherents and leaders will increasingly be Latinos. These trends are well underway in the largest states and at the national level; the rising dispersion of Latinos into parts of the country that traditionally have not had Latino populations suggests that all parts of the country will feel the impact of Latino growth.

Latinos and the Changing Face of America

He is the author of numerous journal articles, book chapters, and technical reports on the demography of Latinos, immigration, social inequality, and race and ethnicity. References Brian Gratton and Myron P. Broadway, and David Griffith, eds. University Press of Kansas, 1995. Brown and Louis E. Swanson University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.

Harper and Row, 1972.