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The issue of nation branding emerges marketing essay

The study also examined the impact of the elements that make up Nation Brand on the attitude of its audiences. An online survey approach was used to collect the data with a sample of 436 Vietnamese Citizens and 100 non-citizens. Findings of this empirical research indicate that Vietnam is perceived by its Citizens through only Tourism, Political efforts of the government GovernancePeople and Export dimensions while all six dimensions of Anholt's Hexagon People, Tourism, Governance, Investment, Culture, Export existed in the perception of non-citizens.

  1. Japanese firms like Sony and Toyota who embraced this journey in the 1950s and 1960s elevated branding to the boardroom level.
  2. Successful global brands contribute strongly to the image of their origin country, and therefore nations should be doing as much as they can to promote brands that boost their national image.
  3. Japan Forum, 25 4 , pp. This would also give them at least a slight feeling of a democratically designed campaign, and in addition they might feel more addressed and represented by the campaign.
  4. The perception of citizens is very importance because it will be a key factor to "Live the brand" to non-citizens.
  5. Introduction provides business background, statement of problems, the objectives of the study, the research questions, scope and limitations of the research. The country is also known as one of the most dynamic emerging economies in East Asia region.

It could not be done without the sincere support and guidance of many people. From the bottom of my heart, I would like to express my gratitude for their enthusiasm and kindness: During doing this thesis, she has provided me lots of valuable instructions and materials to help my thesis going in a right direction. Her strict requirements in conducting a research make me more improved both in knowledge and scientific skill.

In spite of remote distance, her careful and strict guidance are forced me to complete the thesis at its best. Scales of Vietnam Nation Brand Table 3. Scales of Brand Attitude toward Vietnam Table 4.

  • However, to establish its name as quality brand outside Germany and to improve its reputation inside Germany, in addition to the marketing of its location as tourist region, MV should also focus on its location as economic and industrial region;
  • For business audiences, the way the country solicits inward investment, recruitment of foreign talent and students, and expansion into the country by foreign companies;
  • On the other hand, he states that economic growth needs to be unaffected by politics Aronczyk 2013;
  • What is international marketing learn when and how an organization employs the marketing strategy:

Evolution of Branding theories Figure 2. Conceptual framework of the study Figure 5. Nation Branding Index Sig: Observed significance level SPSS: Due to the globalization, countries have to compete each other to attract investment inwards, tourists, talents as well as to boost their exports Dinnie, 2004.

Anholt 2003 the father of "Nation branding" concept, in his book "Brand New Justice: Nation Branding, theorefore, has got lots of attentions of academics in the world. Kaneva, 2011 found 186 articles on nation the issue of nation branding emerges marketing essay were published between 1997 and August 2009. However, due to the complexity and diversity of nation branding in real world, Dinnie 2004 concluded that this topic currently is a controversial phenomenon with too much practices but little theories.

It is required that more academic and empirical studies to be conducted to create more knowledge over the topic, especially on the cases of developing and transitional countries. In this respect, this thesis hopes to contribute more to the research field of Nation Branding with findings from the reality of Vietnam. RenovationVietnam basically transited the issue of nation branding emerges marketing essay the market economy from the old system of centrally planned economy which strongly associated with communism doctrine.

The country is also known as one of the most dynamic emerging economies in East Asia region. Those will bring various opportunities and challenges for the country in a more competitive environment. However, Vietnam economy has been facing with many challenges on the path of development. As we can see in the figure 1. Vietnam General Statistics Office In recent years, statistical figures on many main aspects of the economy: As a results, the export volume is higher year by year but the export value decreased correspondingly because of reduced selling price.

The trust of foreign markets on Vietnam products, labors…also goes down due to bad manner of Vietnamese exporters and workers. All those facts, in the author's subjective view, are making up a negative image of Vietnam as a whole and will result in the decline of Vietnam competitiveness in the global market in the future. Nation Branding can be a useful tool for Vietnam to increase the competitiveness as recommended by experts. Empirical researches and publications in this research area are very limited.

In reviewing documents and materials concerning this topic available in Vietnam, the author found that Nation Branding is not paid appropriate attention as its importance by Vietnamese researchers and policy makers. In practice, while Nation branding is defined by Fan 2006 as a an comprehensive task with the aim of creating reputational capital soft power via economic, political and social interest promotion efforts both inside and out of the country but it has been misunderstood and carried out as a promotional communication campaign for national tourism only by Vietnamese Government.

And even in such communication campaign, there no clear and coherent images are projected to the public. Another issue in the reality of Vietnam Nation Branding is: With the above manners, Vietnam could send unclear, incoherent and contradictory image of itself to the outside world.

Findings in the previous researches in the world shown that the phenomenon of Nation Brand changes their characteristics subject to the context of each country.

  1. In 1996, Simon Anholt introduced a model where the six factors on a hexagon which he believed affecting a Nation Brand. Successful global brands contribute strongly to the image of their origin country, and therefore nations should be doing as much as they can to promote brands that boost their national image.
  2. How corporations are perceived overseas has much to do with the behaviour of their government in the political arena. Successful global brands contribute strongly to the image of their origin country, and therefore nations should be doing as much as they can to promote brands that boost their national image.
  3. And because it is his business, Anholt, among other marketing professionals, is considering and promoting his concept of nation branding as the only possibility of action or reaction in this respect. Hence, nation branding should never be initiated because of greed, but rather for social reasons.
  4. This article discusses the growing body of research on nation branding, arguing for an expanded critical research agenda on this topic it begins with an extensive overview of scholarly writing on nation branding, based on 186 sources across.
  5. But that the Strandkorb is such a strong sign is apparently also entailing disadvantages.

That is the reason why there is no a robust theory of place branding un umbrella term for city, region, nation branding has been developed. Thus, with above problems, to get deeper understanding this phenomenon in the context of Vietnam this study will apply both qualitative and quantitative methods to find answers for those central research questions: What are key dimensions and attributes that make up the Nation Brand of Vietnam in the perception of its audiences: What are the difference in the perception of two group of audiences?

What are the relevant components of Nation Brand of Vietnam that impact the audiences' attitude? Especially, as a transitional country as well as an emerging economy, the study of this topic on Vietnam will also contribute new implications for the research area. As practical contribution, study through its literature review part, will also provide an overall deeper understanding about the topic and its evolution over time.

As stated in the overview part, Nation Branding will be a useful tool for Vietnam for solve its current problems. Expert In-depth interview, focus groups were conducted to explore specific issues and attributes on Nation Brand in Vietnam context.

Those interviews have been used to set preliminary and general conclusions. Then, a structured questionnaire for a quantitative phase was constructed relying on those conclusions and suggestions in previous literature. The questionnaire is made in two languages Vietnamese for Citizen audiences and English for non-citizen ones.

Nation Brand perception and attitude from Citizen and Non-citizen perspectives in Vietnam

Convenience sampling is used to distribute questionnaires online via Google Docs. Data is analyzed by SPSS. However, due to the time constraint scope of research focus on exploring and examine key factors that make up the perception of audiences on the Nation Brand of Vietnam.

Other factors that can impact the shaping the perceptions temporarily not be considered. The examination of the impact of Brand perception on Brand Attitude is only at exploration purposes. Sample size of non-citizen audiences is limited at 100. Those preliminary findings will be used for further more complex conceptualized frameworks in my future PhD dissertation within an estimated time 2016 - 2018.

Introduction provides business background, statement of problems, the objectives of the study, the research questions, scope and limitations of the research. Chapter 1 presents a preliminary Literature Review, which provides us background theories and points of view concerning the research area of Nation Brand. Chapter 2 describes the research methods that will be used to explore the issues in Nation Branding in perception of citizen and non-citizen audiences and it is explained how these methods were executed.

Chapter 3 reveals Data analysis findings by Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multivariable Regression method and their implications.

Chapter 4 ends the research by laying out Managerial implications for Destination The issue of nation branding emerges marketing essay Organization DMO and Policy makers of Vietnam and recommendations for further studies. Conclusion In this chapter, the author has described clearly objectives of thesis which is an exploratory study to understand the nation branding and its relevant key concepts which was conceptualized through a review of the literature.

The author also shared the statement of the problems in Nation branding which leads to 3 research questions that shall be solved via this thesis.

  • Thus, with above problems, to get deeper understanding this phenomenon in the context of Vietnam this study will apply both qualitative and quantitative methods to find answers for those central research questions;
  • Nation brand attitude is an extended concept from brand management;
  • Toward an Agenda for Critical Research.

The different definitions will be described and explained to clarify the essence of various concepts including nation brand, nation brand identity, nation brand image and its dimensions.

The main purpose of reviewing previous researches is to helps conceptualize an appropriate research framework for the context of Vietnam. Countries had to compete each other for FDI, international tourist, export markets and high quality human resources. Those countries consciously applied Brand management into nation image promotion.

Dinnie 2008 pointed out that Nation Branding emerged as nations used Brand Management to effectively compete in the world market. Before discussing about Nation Branding and Nation Brand, we should understand key concepts of traditional branding which was very familiar in modern marketing. Aaker 1996 defined that a brand is a multidimensional construct consisting of functional, emotional, relational and strategic elements which jointly generate a unique set of associations in the customers' mind.

Easier to understanding is the definition of Kotler and Armstrong 2010 that brands are impressions and feelings of consumers about a product or service. Brand is the trust, the quality commitment to customers about the products and services that they buy Kotler.

Simon Anholt 1998 who initiated the concept of Nation Branding concept, stressed that brand can make to create intangible value.

This value lies under the quality and reliability as a guarantee about the reputation of products and services in consumer's perception. In this approach, "place" refers to a nation, a region or a state, a place with cultural connections, cities with big population, market with special attributes, or relations among people. According to Fan 2010the origin of Nation Branding can be traced from four streams: Nation branding is the highest evolution of branding theories which concern a nation's whole image in the international stage covering economic, politic and cultural dimensions Fan, 2010; Anholt, 2008; Dinnie, 2008.

Dinnie 2007 pointed out five objectives of nation branding: With this approach, we can say that, Nation Branding is the highest evolution stage of Branding theories so far, as depicted in the figure 2. Evolution of Branding theories Source: Dinnie, 2008 It is commonly agreed that nation can be branded.

How Nations And Brands Overcome Country of Origin Challenges

However, the definition on nation branding is still controversial issue with different interpretations as shown in the table 2. Compiled by author 2. This imply that nation brand mean nation image in the perception of its stakeholder. About this point, Fan 2010 argued that every nation itself is a brand with or without any conscious efforts.

However, that brand image in its international audience's perception may be strong or weak, clear or faint Fan, 2006. Anholt 2005 also shared a similar opinion that every country has a unique name and images in the mind of people both inside and outside the country, so a nation does have brands. We can refer to more definitions in the table 2. Compiled by author From the above definition we see that, similar to products or corporate brand, Nation brand actually are the sum of perception of people about elements of a nation.

However, a nation is a complicated and multi-stakeholder product. Many elements in nation brand are out of the control of branding management and it is not easy to change them in short term.

Fan 2010 From the above comparison, we can realize nation branding is achallenging task because nation brand is a multifaceted and complex construct with many uncontrolled variables.

The issue of nation branding emerges marketing essay

Establishing or changing a nation brand need a great amount of time and great efforts Lebedenko 2004. For Anholt 2008nation brand cannot be built easily through communications, and it cannot be changed through communications. However, nation branding is not a myth. Successful practices in many countries shown that nation brand can be changed through diligent management despite of challenges Fan, 2006.

Numerous works in the literature focused on the way the citizens of a country see themselves which is mentioned as 'internal nation image'. Vice versa, 'external nation image' is what people think of another country.