Homeworks academic service


The rise of fast food the most influential development in american history essay

Although there are several different working definitions of food security, all of which have evolved over time, the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO of the United Nations currently uses the following description: F For example, individuals in some neighborhoods may have easier access to fast food and junk food than to fruits and vegetables. F However, there is some disagreement on what constitutes a food desert i.

  1. F Food sovereignty, defined by the agricultural activist group Via Campesina, is.
  2. American society was in transition.
  3. F It is predicted that climate change may negatively affect food supply and food access due to loss of farmland, fluctuating food prices, increases in foodborne illnesses, and other food utilization issues.

Who is food insecure? The USDA reported that 14. F Of the 14.

  • Indispensable to this growth and development were an unprecedented surge in immigration and urbanization after the Civil War;
  • In the postwar period the West and the Southwest continued to grow -- a trend that would continue through the end of the century;
  • On an individual level, food insecurity, especially over time, causes physical, social, and psychological problems in both children and adults;
  • F Food sovereignty, defined by the agricultural activist group Via Campesina, is:

F However, in households with children, the USDA reports that over 20 percent were food insecure in 2010. F Globally, food insecurity is more difficult to measure. In 1999, the FAO estimated that over 1. F Asia, including the Indian sub-continent, was the most food insecure region, with 642 million undernourished people. Over 15 million of the undernourished were in developed countries.

Food Security & Food Access

F Certain groups are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity, including women especially low income pregnant and lactating womenvictims of conflict, the ill, migrant workers, low-income urban dwellers, the elderly, and children under five. F As we can see in the United States, having food security as a nation does not necessarily mean that all individuals living in that nation will be food secure.

There are many complex reasons an individual becomes food insecure. Poverty is unmistakably the driving factor in the lack of resources to purchase or otherwise procure food, but the root causes of poverty are multifaceted. Poverty, combined with other socioeconomic and political problems, creates the bulk of food insecurity around the globe.

  • Poverty is unmistakably the driving factor in the lack of resources to purchase or otherwise procure food, but the root causes of poverty are multifaceted;
  • F As we can see in the United States, having food security as a nation does not necessarily mean that all individuals living in that nation will be food secure;
  • There are many complex reasons an individual becomes food insecure;
  • A housing boom, stimulated in part by easily affordable mortgages for returning servicemen, fueled the expansion.

Food Distribution Although it is commonly thought that world population will outstrip food production capacity, current production of food exceeds global population requirements. Historically, famines and widespread hunger have been caused by problems of food distribution political or logistical rather than by insufficient food production.

Although the global population is expected to rise in the next several decades, global hunger is predicted to decline. Malthus suggested that population grows exponentially, while food production grows only arithmetically.

F Several well-known famines in history, such as the Irish Potato Famine and several Indian famines in the late 19th century, were caused not by lack of food, but by lack of political will to distribute the food to the starving poor.

During these famines, Ireland and parts of India were actually exporting food to various other English colonies. F Food distribution, rather than total food production, continues to be a global problem in solving food insecurity.

  1. Family farms, in turn, found it difficult to compete, and more and more farmers left the land. With easy parking and convenient evening hours, customers could avoid city shopping entirely.
  2. F In addition, the US exports a high proportion of its commodity crops to the rest of the world.
  3. The right of peoples to define their own food and agriculture; to protect and regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives; to determine the extent to which they want to be self-reliant; [and] to restrict the dumping of products in their markets. Gains in productivity led to agricultural consolidation, as farming became a big business.
  4. And the social problems that accompanied the nation's industrial development fueled the rise of national labor unions and unprecedented clashes between capital and labor.
  5. F They advocate local production andconsumption of food whenever possible as a means to avoid the cycle of poverty, reliance upon foreign imports, and long-term food security problems.

Political-Agricultural Practices Various political-agricultural practices contribute to food insecurity worldwide. These include substituting commodity crops for food crops e. F In addition, the US exports a high proportion of its commodity crops to the rest of the world.

For example, in 2010, over 53 percent of all corn exports in the world were from the US. F The exportation of these commodity crops affects farmers in the rest of the world — especially small farmers with limited resources. A large influx of commodity crops from the US can affect local food security, as small farmers cannot compete with less expensive subsidized US-produced agricultural products.

F Read more about industrial crop production Environmental Factors Globally, natural disasters, such as drought, have been frequently implicated in food insecurity; however, natural disaster-related food insecurity and famines are exacerbated by food distribution problems see above and lack of food surpluses due to exportation or other political factors.

F It is predicted that climate change may negatively affect food supply and food access due to loss of farmland, fluctuating food prices, increases in foodborne illnesses, and other food utilization issues. F Other environmental factors, such as soil degradation including salinization due to heavy irrigation, desertification, erosion, and soil pollution related to industrial agricultural practices may negatively affect global food security as well.

Learn More

F Increases in food costs generally mean increases in the food insecure. Other factors contributing to food insecurity include loss of farmland or pastureland due to development; conflict and war; water access issues; and disease. On an individual level, food insecurity, especially over time, causes physical, social, and psychological problems in both children and adults. F One theory as to why food insecurity leads to obesity is that episodic periods of food insecurity cause the sufferer to overeat in an attempt by the body to recoup missing calories.

F In infants and toddlers in the US, food insecurity is correlated with higher hospitalization rates and generally poor health. F In older US children, food insecurity negatively affects academic performance and social skills, and causes increases in Body Mass Index BMIan indicator of overweight and obesity. F Globally, chronic food insecurity undernourishment and malnutrition causes underweight, wasting, and stunted growth in children.

The changing market for food delivery

F Food insecurity can also lead to political instability and conflict. F Are there solutions to food insecurity? Solutions to food insecurity must include elimination of poverty; however, other aspects of food insecurity may be more immediately solvable.

Some solutions proposed to end food insecurity include the following: Sustainable Agriculture Although the first Green Revolution GR in the 1960s and 70s increased global yields, the Revolution came at a price: F In addition, in this second wave of the Green Revolution, the focus is not on sustainable agriculture, as high amounts of inputs i.

Because industrial agricultural inputs and infrastructure are expensive, rely on fossil fuels, and degrade the environment in numerous ways, many experts agree that relying upon unsustainable agriculture will, in the long term, increase global food insecurity.

The shape of the market today

F Studies involving small farms have indicated that sustainable agricultural practices can actually increase yield. F Industrial agriculture relies upon monocropping, in which one genetic type of crop is planted on large tracts of land, while sustainable farms frequently plant a genetically diverse array of both crop type and species.

Monocropping increases crop susceptibility to both pests and diseases; several historical famines and crop decimations were due to a pest or disease devastating monocropped agricultural plantings. F With monocropping also comes an increased need for chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which can erode soil biodiversity and in turn negatively affect yields over time.

Policy Changes In the US, policy change that champions sustainable, locally produced food, including increased incentives for local farmers and for markets where fresh, healthful food is available, can increase community food security.

F This, along with the increasing acceptance of food stamp SNAP benefits at local food outlets such as farmers' markets, may improve access to healthful food and increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. F SNAP benefits have expanded to allow participants to buy seeds and edible plants, further increasing the potential for urban agriculture and home gardening to help alleviate food insecurity. F Food sovereignty, defined by the agricultural activist group Via Campesina, is: The right of peoples to define their own food and agriculture; to protect and regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives; to determine the extent to which they want to be self-reliant; [and] to restrict the dumping of products in their markets.

F Both the food justice and food sovereignty movements are concerned with the ways in which food is produced i. F The food sovereignty movement argues that the focus solely on food security, without addressing the production of food, has caused poor, food-insecure countries to import cheap, subsidized food to the detriment of their local farmers, economies, and cultures, thus adversely affecting longer-term and sustainable food security.

F They advocate local production andconsumption of food whenever possible as a means to avoid the cycle of poverty, reliance upon foreign imports, and long-term food security problems.