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Transitions to empire essays in greco-roman history

Bryn Mawr Classical Review Wallace and Edward M. Essays in Graeco-Roman History, B. University of Oklahoma Press, Romans were famously enamored of associating key moments in their own early history with important events and institutions in Greek history. Aeneas' dual status as Trojan War hero and mythical ancestor of the Romans, and the putative visit of the decemviri to Athens prior to the publication of the Twelve Tables, undertaken in order to copy Solon's law code and to investigate Graeciae civitatium instituta mores iuraque Livy III.

Important and revelatory as these and other stories are for the historian interested in Roman national identity see E.

  • Rather, he asks, Why did the empire last so long?
  • Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire argues that the longevity of the empire rested not on Roman military power but on a gradually realized consensus that Roman rule was justified;
  • It can also be seen in Aristotle's widely accepted assertion that "the polis is peculiar to Hellenic civilization and out of reach of barbarian peoples" Mogens Hansen, "Aristotle's Two Complementary Views of the Greek Polis," pp;
  • Jerzy Linderski's contribution on "Cato Maior in Aetolia" pp.

Gruen, Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome [Ithaca, ]students of empire might do well to consider a different, and uncelebrated, set of parallels: As Kurt Raaflaub remarks in his contribution to the present volume, "both events mark in the Mediterranean world the end of an era that was dominated politically and culturally by independent city-states and the beginning of another era, of large territorial empires" "Born to be Wolves?

Origins of Roman Imperialism", pp. Identification of this important "coincidence" ibid argues for an examination of imperialism in the Greaco-Roman world between and BC which takes into account Rome and Macedon on the one hand, as they acquire and exercise their new imperial powers, and the Greek city-states on the other, as they respond and seek to adapt to the new world order imposed on them first from the north, and later from the west.

When conducted properly, as it is in this superb volume, such an examination can yield both useful general insights and a new understanding of individual episodes.

  • As such an example suggests, our impulse to generalize should always be tempered by recognition of the importance of the specificity of each society's experience;
  • Aeneas' dual status as Trojan War hero and mythical ancestor of the Romans, and the putative visit of the decemviri to Athens prior to the publication of the Twelve Tables, undertaken in order to copy Solon's law code and to investigate Graeciae civitatium instituta mores iuraque Livy III;
  • Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire argues that the longevity of the empire rested not on Roman military power but on a gradually realized consensus that Roman rule was justified;
  • University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

For example, one might observe that for both Rome and Macedon the path to world power lay in skillfully playing by the rules of the existing game, and that only after succeeding in this way were they able to impose new forms of rule. John Buckler's paper on "Philip II's Designs on Greece" demonstrates how Philip "realized that he could turn Greek, especially Athenian, factiousness to his own ends" pp.

One could further argue that neither at Rome nor in Macedonia was progress to empire inevitable or the imperial impulse innate. Raaflaub is explicit on this point with reference to Rome p.

Indeed, as Julia Heskel's essay makes clear, serious challenges to Philip's rule emerged in the wake of his ascension to the throne; although soon suppressed, they "affected A Pretender's Story", pp. As such an example suggests, our impulse to generalize should always be tempered by recognition of the importance of the specificity of each society's experience. Jerzy Linderski's contribution on "Cato Maior in Aetolia" pp. Bosworth argues for an interpretation of the latter's emulation of Dionysos which insists on both its psychological plausability and its "political expediency" "Alexander, Euripides, and Dionysos", pp.

Similarly, the Greek reaction to the rise of Macedonian and later of Roman power is best understood through an appreciation of the interplay of general themes and specific circumstances. One such theme concerns the relationship between the threat to and ultimate loss of Greek political autonomy, on the one hand, and continuing Greek cultural and intellectual authority, on the other.

Roman History

The Athenians may not have felt that they had to choose between "guns and butter", as Edward M. Harris claims in his discussion of "Demosthenes and the Theoric Fund" pp.

  • Important and revelatory as these and other stories are for the historian interested in Roman national identity see E;
  • Rather, its uniqueness stems from the culture it created and the loyalty it inspired across an area that stretched from the Tyne to the Euphrates;
  • That appeal would not diminish, however politically controversial it became, in the era of Roman conquest;
  • The contributions, each by a former student or colleague, cover not only a wide range of topics but also a wide range of historical disciplines, from numismatics William T;
  • Aeneas' dual status as Trojan War hero and mythical ancestor of the Romans, and the putative visit of the decemviri to Athens prior to the publication of the Twelve Tables, undertaken in order to copy Solon's law code and to investigate Graeciae civitatium instituta mores iuraque Livy III;
  • For example, one might observe that for both Rome and Macedon the path to world power lay in skillfully playing by the rules of the existing game, and that only after succeeding in this way were they able to impose new forms of rule.

Wallace, "Book Burning in Ancient Athens", pp. This hardly rendered either Athens' political or its intellectual life in the later fourth century untroubled, as Wallace's paper reminds us.

  1. Analyses of Sallust's and Trogus's treatments of the Eastern ruler Mithradates, Polybius's and Livy's speeches from Carthage's Hannibal, and Tacitus's and Cassius Dio's accounts of the oratory of the Celtic warrior queen Boudica form the core of this study.
  2. When conducted properly, as it is in this superb volume, such an examination can yield both useful general insights and a new understanding of individual episodes. The contributions, each by a former student or colleague, cover not only a wide range of topics but also a wide range of historical disciplines, from numismatics William T.
  3. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Such cultural authority rested not simply on insistence on the difference between Greeks and Macedonians, although, as Eugene Borza demonstrates, such a belief is persistent throughout the ancient literature "Greeks and Macedonians in the Age of Alexander", pp. It can also be seen in Aristotle's widely accepted assertion that "the polis is peculiar to Hellenic civilization and out of reach of barbarian peoples" Mogens Hansen, "Aristotle's Two Complementary Views of the Greek Polis," pp.

Even more tellingly, it can also be seen in Jewish attempts to claim Abraham as a common ancestor of both Spartans and Jews -- a strategy, as Erich Gruen persuasively argues in his fascinating paper on "The Purported Spartan-Jewish Affiliation" pp. That context was one in which traditional Greek cultural and political models continued to have intellectual appeal, even or perhaps particularly in "the fragmented and turbulent scene of the post-Alexander era" ibid.

That appeal would not diminish, however politically controversial it became, in the era of Roman conquest. The foregoing represents merely a fraction of the intellectual riches and interpretive possibilities to be found in this collection of twenty-one essays in honor of Ernst Badian.

The contributions, each by a former student or colleague, cover not only a wide range of topics but also a wide range of historical disciplines, from numismatics William T.

Loomis, "The Introduction of the Denarius", pp. The Decline of the Roman Republic A bibliography of Badian's publications compiled by Corey Brennan reminds those of us at the beginning of our academic lives what it is to have a productive scholarly career pp. One of the great Roman historians of our age can be confident that his exemplary intelligence, readability, and scholarship have had a lasting and unmistakable impact on an entire generation of scholars.