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Why did the british colonised australia essay

Contact Author Captain James Cook. Portrait by Nathaniel Dance-Holland Captain James Cook had sailed along 2,000 miles of the east coast in 1770, landing only at Botany Bay as named by him.

He claimed the coastline for the British crown, but it was another 18 years before any attempt was made to site a colony there.

The Effects of British Colonisation on Indigenous Australians Essay

What made Australia perfect for colonization was that it was an untouched, empty continent that the British could occupy without opposition.

Although Dutch navigators had discovered parts of Australia long before Cook arrived, their countrymen made no attempt at settling there. Cook had noticed that there was a native population, but they proved to be largely docile and to have no intention of resisting any incursions by Europeans.

  1. The horse had been stolen, and when the constable arrived she was arrested for being in possession of stolen property. Reasons for the British decision to colonise Botany Bay in 1788 Since 1786, when the British government decided to transport their convicts to Australia, many people discussed and debated their real reasons.
  2. From the earliest times to the age of Macquarie Melbourne.
  3. Oxford University Press, 1989 , p. Writing in 1856, Edward Wilson expressed concern that his people were driving the Aboriginal people to extinction.

On the other hand, as the first settlers soon discovered, this new continent proved to be an unfriendly host. The natives were hunter-gatherers who had made no attempt to cultivate the land or build settled communities, so there was no infrastructure to take over or imitate.

The climate was baking hot away from the coast, and although several fairly large rivers disgorged into the sea close to Botany Bay, others proved to be highly seasonal, drying up completely for many months of the year.

There were no obvious natural resources that anyone would want to exploit and send back to England. So what reason could there possibly be for wanting to colonize this place? The answer was precisely its remoteness and harshness. These properties were exactly what were needed when the old country wanted to export its most troublesome commodity, namely its criminals and undesirables.

Was Australia Settled Or Invaded By The Europeans?

Australia was perfectly suited to becoming a penal colony. The Founding of Australia. Painting by Algernon Talmage Somewhere to Send British Criminals This function had previously been taken by the American colonies, particularly those of Georgia and the Carolinas, although Newfoundland was also used for this purpose. With American independence, a new convict settlement was needed, and Botany Bay sounded just about right, although nearby Sydney Cove turned out to be more suitable for building a settlement.

The Salisbury and Winchester Journal of 25 April 1785 stated that: Although 28 convicts died on board the Alexander during the passage, Michael Dennison survived to become one of the first white Australians.

The convicts were, generally speaking, from the lowest rungs of the English social ladder, who were used to living hard lives and settling disputes with their fists. Although the convicts were often tough people, and were transported for having committed offences, many of the crimes would strike us today as being mild in the extreme. Stealing as little as a shilling, for a first offence, could land someone in Australia.

The horse had been stolen, and when the constable arrived she was arrested for being in possession of stolen property. They were later reprieved and returned to Why did the british colonised australia essay. The Landing of the Convicts at Botany Bay Staying On In Australia, discipline was often harsh, although there were other colonies, such as nearby Norfolk Island, where life was even tougher due to the brutality of the regime.

If anyone could survive and make a living in Australia, the English criminal courts had chosen their candidates well.

Reasons for the British Decision to Colonise Botany Bay in 1788

It was soon apparent to the convicts that, because escape was impossible in that there was nowhere to escape to, they might as well make the best of a bad job. Although transportation was not usually for life, seven years being the almost universal term, convicts who had served their sentence often chose not to return, preferring to make a new life for themselves in a new country.

The suggestion has been made that the penal colony was in fact originally planned as a colonial establishment, and that it was always the intention to build an outpost of Empire on the far side of the world. That is hard to establish, given that at the time of the First Fleet nobody knew anything about the conditions that would be found there, or even whether survival was possible at all. The officials and soldiers who travelled with the prisoners must have been every bit as apprehensive as their charges.

Why Great Britain Colonized Australia

Convicts going to work near Sydney Source Building New Colonies Later fleets took supplies with them that made it more likely that permanent colonies would be established. These supplies included cattle and sheep, which proved to be far more adaptable to the conditions than might have been imagined.

There is a story that, when explorers tried to find a route to the interior through the notoriously difficult Blue Mountains, they discovered a herd of wild cattle on the other side, these being descendants of the original cattle that had found their own way round the mountains rather than across them! In time, Australia did reveal its natural resources, such as gold, sapphires, opals, coal and why did the british colonised australia essay much later discoveries included uranium and natural gas.

These made the early colonies much more valuable than simply a place to dump exiles from the home country. It did not take long before Australia became a place of voluntary emigration for people who wanted to make a fresh start, with more than 500,000 colonists arriving from the United Kingdom between 1851 and 1861. Many incentives were offered down the years to persuade people to go there, and it has only been relatively recently that immigration has had to be capped.

  1. In time, Australia did reveal its natural resources, such as gold, sapphires, opals, coal and iron much later discoveries included uranium and natural gas.
  2. As a result of the loss of land, the number of Aboriginal communities and the number of Aboriginals were greatly reduced. That is hard to establish, given that at the time of the First Fleet nobody knew anything about the conditions that would be found there, or even whether survival was possible at all.
  3. The importance of these materials to a maritime European nation such as Britain was perfectly explained by Blainey.
  4. Cook actually made his first contact with Australia in April of 1770. Although the convicts were often tough people, and were transported for having committed offences, many of the crimes would strike us today as being mild in the extreme.
  5. Diseases such as smallpox, measles and influenza wiped out half the population of Sydney within 14 months.

Transportation to New South Wales ended in 1840, by which time the colony was well established as the home of free people. The Australian continent was never the scene of colonial rivalry between the European powers, with non-British immigration being unknown until the 20th century. The Australian colonies became an untouchable British preserve, with Britain as their sole export market and the one source of commodity imports.

The way of life of the colonists was British in all but name, and they also became annoyingly good at playing cricket! The climate - the geography - the wildlife - all are very different and could never lead to "another England.