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Working mothers negative effects on young children social work essay

January 3, 2013 In recent years, full time employment of mothers has become the norm in the United States. Research on the Long-term Impact of Maternal Employment The research on the long-term impact of maternal employment seems to tell a consistent story.

The leaders of this study were among the most respected researchers in the field of developmental psychology, making the conclusions of this research particularly worthy of attention.

In a recent review of their findings, they drew the following conclusions: With regard to cognitive difference in the middle and upper middle class sample, the study found that: Mothers who worked full-time tended to use higher-quality substitute childcare and to show higher levels of sensitivity to her child.

The researchers speculate that the higher levels of maternal sensitivity seen in employed mothers might have stemmed from their having greater financial security. Early maternal employment was found to be associated with beneficial child outcomes when families were at risk because of either financial challenges or as the result of being single-parent families.

  • Material aspirations and the necessities of daily life often compel both parents to work;
  • It is also assumed that a mother's being at work leads to social ills like school dropouts, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, and divorce;
  • From a policy perspective, these results support the role of initiatives that aim to raise the rates of mothers in work, such as the plan to increase provision of free early learning and childcare to 1,140 hours by 2020 in Scotland.

In those families, children of working mothers showed higher levels of achievement and lower levels of internalizing behaviors working mothers negative effects on young children social work essay as anxiety and depression.

These benefits are generally explained by a compensatory hypothesis that views work in those families as providing added financial security, lower levels of family stress and enhanced learning opportunities for children who would otherwise be home with a parent who is dealing with the ongoing stress of poverty and child-rearing challenges with little external support.

Employment was associated with negative child outcomes, however, when children were from intact, middle class families that were not at risk financially. In those families, early full-time employment relative to mothers who were not working outside the home was associated with later risk for child behavioral difficulties.

It should be noted, however, that this increased risk was not the case when mothers worked full-time when their children were toddlers or preschoolers. It appears that working full-time when the child is an infant โ€” a critical period in terms of attachment and emotional and cognitive growth โ€” is more likely to be associated with subsequent difficulties.

In summary, the consensus of the empirical studies on the impact of maternal employment finds that child adjustment is tied to a number of relevant variables. In the case of single-parent families, or families otherwise facing poverty, the impact of maternal employment appears to be mostly positive.

It is very important to note, however, that these conclusions cannot necessarily be generalized to our community. There are numerous variables that may differ.

Similarly, grandparents might be more actively involved in caring for their grandchildren โ€” a factor that is generally associated with improved childcare and improved outcomes. During that critical period, when there is an option, the father should make an effort to be present in as active a parenting role as possible. Similarly, if at all feasible, grandparents should be more actively recruited to take care of their grandchildren when they are infants and both parents are working full-time.

This has an added benefit since research has found that actively-involved grandparents serve a crucial role as a protective buffer against the potential harmful influences of parental stress. This recommendation is therefore most relevant for the segment of our community that falls in that category. The finding that full-time mothers are at times at greater risk for depression should not be taken lightly. Infants of parents with depression have been found to have difficulties with self-quieting, lower activity levels and decreased ability to attend.

Relative to the children of nondepressed parents, their affect tends to be more negative, as typified by increased likelihood of expressing sadness and anger. Equally important are the studies on the role of chronic stress in parenting.

This style of parenting frequently engenders high levels of resistance and at-risk behavior in the adolescent.

Working mothers 'bad for children'

The implications of this body of research are that high stress levels, and particularly depression in stressed-out parents, can have long term implications on child development. The community needs to take this into account when prioritizing the need to provide young parents with support.

  • The result is an amazing variety of nutritional deficiencies, ranging from iron and vitamins to proteins;
  • They attributed a definite relation between family responsibilities and gender to academic productivity.

Quality of Substitute Childcare Perhaps the most important lesson of the research is the importance of high-quality childcare for children.

The key elements of what matters in substitute care are clearly demonstrated here. Unfortunately, parents in our community are given very little in the way of evidence-based information on how to evaluate a quality program. Data from a recent survey of parents of adolescents in the Orthodox Jewish community did not find any differences in adolescent outcomes for those mothers who reported being at-home mothers as compared with mothers who held other professions.

Additional research needs to be done to determine how the various issues addressed in this paper might present differently in the Orthodox Jewish community. It is clear that we need to do a better job of guiding the next generation of parents on how to navigate the challenges of young parenthood. Pelcovitz clarifying his intent in writing this article. To read firsthand accounts of women who successfully balance work and family, check out the Jewish Action article, Striking a Balance: Each issue consists of a symposium in which a diverse group of rabbinic and lay leaders share their different perspectives on a given topic.

Psychological Bulletin, 136 6 915-942. Journal of Family Psychology, 16: Accessibility of dominance ideation among individuals with low perceptions of interpersonal power.

Adolescent children of newly-Orthodox Jewish parents: Family functioning, parenting, and community integration as correlates of adjustment. Sign up for our Shabbat Shalom e-newsletter, a weekly roundup of inspirational thoughts, insight into current events, divrei torah, relationship advice, recipes and so much more! Shabbat Shalom Weekly email newsletter filled with articles, Divrei Torah, upcoming events and more!