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A biography of saint francis of assisi a catholic saint

Francis of Assisi St. Francis of Assisi Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download.

His fatherPietro Bernardone, was a wealthy Assisian cloth merchant. Of his mother, Pica, little is knownbut she is said to have belonged to a noble family of Provence.

Francis was one of several children. The legend that he was born in a stable dates from the fifteenth century only, and appears to have originated in the desire of certain writers to make his life resemble that of Christ.

At baptism the saint received the name of Giovanni, which his father afterwards altered to Francesco, through fondness it would seem for Francewhither business had led him at the time of his son's birth.

In any case, since the child was renamed in infancy, the change can hardly have had anything to do with his aptitude for learning Frenchas some have thought. Francis received some elementary instruction from the priests of St. George's at Assisithough he learned more perhaps in the school of the Troubadours, who were just then making for refinement in Italy.

However this may be, he was not very studious, and his literary education remained incomplete. Although associated with his father in trade, he showed little liking for a merchant's career, and his parents seemed to have indulged his every whim. Thomas of Celanohis first biographer, speaks in very severe terms of Francis's youth. Certain it is that the saint's early life gave no presage of the golden years that were to come. No one loved pleasure more than Francis; he had a ready wit, sang merrily, delighted in fine clothes and showy display.

Handsome, gay, gallant, and courteous, he soon became the prime favourite among the young nobles of Assisithe foremost in every feat of arms, the leader of the civil revels, the very king of frolic.

A biography of saint francis of assisi a catholic saint even at this time Francis showed an instinctive sympathy with the poorand though he spent money lavishlyit still flowed in such channels as to attest a princely magnanimity of spirit. When about twenty, Francis went out with the townsmen to fight the Perugians in one of the petty skirmishes so frequent at that time between the rival cities. The Assisians were defeated on this occasion, and Francis, being among those taken prisonerswas held captive for more than a year in Perugia.

A low fever which he there contracted appears to have turned his thoughts to the things of eternity ; at least the emptiness of the life he had been leading came to him during that long illness. With returning health, however, Francis's eagerness after glory reawakened and his fancy wandered in search of victories; at length he resolved to embrace a military career, and circumstances seemed to favour his aspirations.

A knight of Assisi was about to join "the gentle count", Walter of Brienne, who was then in arms in the Neapolitan States against the emperorand Francis arranged to accompany him. His biographers tell us that the night before Francis set forth he had a strange dreamin which he saw a vast hall hung with armour all marked with the Cross.

But a second illness arrested his course at Spoleto. There, we are told, Francis had another dream in which the same voice bade him turn back to Assisi. He did so at once. This was in 1205. Although Francis still joined at times in the noisy revels of his former comrades, his changed demeanour plainly showed that his heart was no longer with them; a yearning for the life of the spirit had already possessed it.

  1. Few lives have been more wholly imbued with the supernatural , as even Renan admits.
  2. What the saint did was to teach a people "accustomed to the artificial versification of courtly Latin and Provencal poets, the use of their native tongue in simple spontaneous hymns , which became even more popular with the Laudi and Cantici of his poet-follower Jacopone of Todi ". It was therefore under a strong guard that Francis, in July, 1226, was finally borne in safety to the bishop's palace in his native city amid the enthusiastic rejoicings of the entire populace.
  3. Although Francis still joined at times in the noisy revels of his former comrades, his changed demeanour plainly showed that his heart was no longer with them; a yearning for the life of the spirit had already possessed it.
  4. After preaching there to the assembled Christian forces, Francis fearlessly passed over to the infidel camp, where he was taken prisoner and led before the sultan.

His companions twitted Francis on his absent-mindedness and asked if he were minded to be married. After a short period of uncertainty he began to seek in prayer and solitude the answer to his call; he had already given up his gay attire and wasteful ways.

One day, while crossing the Umbrian plain on horseback, Francis unexpectedly drew near a poor leper. The sudden appearance of this repulsive object filled him with disgust and he instinctively retreated, but presently controlling his natural aversion he dismounted, embraced the unfortunate manand gave him all the money he had.

About the same time Francis made a pilgrimage to Rome. Pained at the miserly offerings he saw at the tomb of St.

  1. Our Lord acceded to this request on condition that the pope should ratify the Indulgence.
  2. At the concluding verse, "Bring my soul out of prison ", Francis was led away from earth by "Sister Death", in whose praise he had shortly before added a new strophe to his "Canticle of the Sun". So great, indeed, was Francis's reverence for the priesthood , because of its relation to the Adorable Sacrament , that in his humility he never dared to aspire to that dignity.
  3. In the same way Francis afterwards restored two other deserted chapels , St. At baptism the saint received the name of Giovanni, which his father afterwards altered to Francesco, through fondness it would seem for France , whither business had led him at the time of his son's birth.
  4. So true is this that it has been said we might by following his familiar figure "construct a history of Christian art , from the predecessors of Cimabue down to Guido Reni , Rubens , and Van Dyck ".

Peterhe emptied his purse thereon. Then, as if to put his fastidious nature to the test, he exchanged clothes with a tattered mendicant and stood for the rest of the day fasting among the horde of beggars at the door of the basilica. Not long after his return to Assisiwhilst Francis was praying before an ancient crucifix in the forsaken wayside chapel of St.

Damian's below the town, he heard a voice saying: When, however, the poor priest who officiated there refused to receive the gold thus gotten, Francis flung it from him disdainfully. The elder Bernardone, a most niggardly manwas incensed beyond measure at his son's conduct, and Francis, to avert his father's wrathhid himself in a cave near St.

Damian's for a whole month. When he emerged from this place of concealment and returned to the town, emaciated with hunger and squalid with dirt, Francis was followed by a hooting rabble, pelted with mud and stones, and otherwise mocked as a madman.

Finally, he was dragged home by his fatherbeaten, bound, and locked in a dark closet. Freed by his mother during Bernardone's absence, Francis returned at once to St.

Damian's, where he found a shelter with the officiating priestbut he was soon cited before the city consuls by his father. The latter, not content with having recovered the scattered gold from St. Damian's, sought also to force his son to forego his inheritance. Having therefore been taken before the bishopFrancis stripped himself of the very clothes he wore, and gave them to his fathersaying: And now Francis wandered forth into the hills behind Assisiimprovising hymns of praise as he went.

Naked and half frozen, Francis crawled to a neighbouring monastery and there worked for a time as a biography of saint francis of assisi a catholic saint scullion.

At Gubbiowhither he went next, Francis obtained from a friend the cloak, girdle, and staff of a pilgrim as an alms. Returning to Assisihe traversed the city begging stones for the restoration of St. These he carried to the old chapelset in place himself, and so at length rebuilt it. In the same way Francis afterwards restored two other deserted chapelsSt.

Peter's, some distance from a biography of saint francis of assisi a catholic saint city, and St. Mary of the Angels, in the plain below it, at a spot called the Porziuncola. Meantime he redoubled his zeal in works of charitymore especially in nursing the lepers.

On a certain morning in 1208, probably 24 February, Francis was hearing Mass in the chapel of St. Mary of the Angels, near which he had then built himself a hut; the Gospel of the day told how the disciples of Christ were to possess neither gold nor silver, nor scrip for their journey, nor two coats, nor shoes, nor a staff, and that they were to exhort sinners to repentance and announce the Kingdom of God. Francis took these words as if spoken directly to himself, and so soon as Mass was over threw away the poor fragment left him of the world's goodshis shoes, cloak, pilgrim staff, and empty wallet.

St. Francis of Assisi

At last he had found his vocation. Having obtained a coarse woolen tunic of "beast colour", the dress then worn by the poorest Umbrian peasants, and tied it round him with a knotted rope, Francis went forth at once exhorting the people of the country-side to penancebrotherly loveand peace.

The Assisians had already ceased to scoff at Francis; they now paused in wonderment; his example even drew others to him. Bernard of Quintavalle, a magnate of the town, was the first to join Francis, and he was soon followed by Peter of Cattaneo, a well-known canon of the cathedral.

In true spirit of religious enthusiasmFrancis repaired to the church of St. Nicholas and sought to learn God's will in their regard by thrice opening at random the book of the Gospels on the altar.

Each time it opened at passages where Christ told His disciples to leave all things and follow Him. After this they procured rough habits like that of Francis, and built themselves small huts near his at the Porziuncola. A few days later Giles, afterwards the great ecstatic and sayer of "good words", became the third follower of Francis.

The little band divided and went about, two and two, making such an impression by their words and behaviour that before long several other disciples grouped themselves round Francis eager to share his povertyamong them being Sabatinus, vir bonus et justus, Moricus, who had belonged to the Crucigeri, John of Capella, who afterwards fell away, Philip "the Long", and four others of whom we know only the names.

When the number of his companions had increased to eleven, Francis found it expedient to draw up a written rule for them. This first rule, as it is called, of the Friars Minor has not come down to us in its original form, but it appears to have been very short and simple, a mere adaptation of the Gospel precepts already selected by Francis for the guidance of his first companions, and which he desired to practice in all their perfection.

When this rule was ready the Penitents of Assisi, as Francis and his followers styled themselves, set out for Rome to seek the approval of the Holy Seealthough as yet no such approbation was obligatory. Paul, and that at the instance of the latter, the pope recalled the saint whose first overtures he had, as it appears, somewhat rudely rejected.

Moreover, in site of the sinister predictions of others in the Sacred Collegewho regarded the mode of life proposed by Francis as unsafe and impracticable, Innocentmoved it is said by a dream in which he beheld the Poor Man of Assisi upholding the tottering Laterangave a verbal sanction to the rule submitted by Francis and granted the saint and his companions leave to preach repentance everywhere.

Before leaving Rome they all received the ecclesiastical tonsureFrancis himself being ordained deacon later on. About 1211 they obtained a permanent foothold near Assisithrough the generosity of the Benedictines of Monte Subasio, who gave them the little chapel of St.

Mary of the Angels or the Porziuncola. Adjoining this humble sanctuaryalready dear to Francis, the first Franciscan convent was formed by the erection of a few small huts or cells of wattle, straw, and mud, and enclosed by a hedge.

From this settlement, which became the cradle of the Franciscan Order Caput et Mater Ordinis and the central spot in the life of St. Francis, the Friars Minor went forth two by two exhorting the people of the a biography of saint francis of assisi a catholic saint country. Like children "careless of the day", they wandered from place to place singing in their joy, and calling themselves the Lord's minstrels.

The wide world was their cloister ; sleeping in haylofts, grottos, or church porchesthey toiled with the labourers in the fields, and when none gave them work they would beg. In a short while Francis and his companions gained an immense influence, and men of different grades of life and ways of thought flocked to the order. Among the new recruits made about this time by Francis were the famous Three Companions, who afterwards wrote his life, namely: Angelus Tancredi, a noble cavalier; Leothe saint's secretary and confessor; and Rufinus, a cousin of St.

Clare ; besides Juniper, "the renowned jester of the Lord". During the Lent of 1212, a new joygreat as it was unexpected, came to Francis.

Clarea young heiress of Assisimoved by the saint's preaching at the church of St. George, sought him out, and begged to be allowed to embrace the new manner of life he had founded. By his advice, Clarewho was then but eighteen, secretly left her father's house on the night following Palm Sundayand with two companions went to the Porziuncolawhere the friars met her in processioncarrying lighted torches.

Then Francis, having cut off her hairclothed her in the Minorite habit and thus received her to a life of povertypenanceand seclusion. Clare stayed provisionally with some Benedictine nuns near Assisiuntil Francis could provide a suitable retreat for her, and for St. Agnesher sister, and the other pious maidens who had joined her. He eventually established them at St. Damian's, in a dwelling adjoining the chapel he had rebuilt with his own hands, which was now given to the saint by the Benedictines as domicile for his spiritual daughters, and which thus became the first monastery of the Second Franciscan Order of Poor Ladies, now known as Poor Clares.

In the autumn of the same year 1212 Francis's burning desire for the conversion of the Saracens led him to embark for Syriabut having been shipwrecked on the coast of Slavonia, he had to return to Ancona. The following spring he devoted himself to evangelizing Central Italy.

About this time 1213 Francis received from Count Orlando of Chiusi the mountain of La Vernaan isolated peak among the Tuscan Apennines, rising some 4000 feet above the valley of the Casentino, as a retreat"especially favourable for contemplation ", to which he might retire from time to time for prayer and rest.