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A body composition and the risks associated with excess body fat

  1. From 1994 to 2003, dementia was present in 713 6.
  2. Indeed, unless this pandemic is reversed, morbidity and mortality will continue to increase and the steady rise in life expectancy since 1900 may soon end.
  3. Family history and genes play a large role in type 2 diabetes. To be healthy, women should be no more than 30 per cent fat and men no more than 20 per cent.

Find articles by Mukadas O. Phillips Find articles by Julie S. Igumbor Find articles by Ehimario U.

  • If you weigh 200 pounds, this means losing as little as 10 pounds;
  • High blood pressure hypertension usually has no symptoms, but it may cause serious problems, such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure;
  • Weight loss may improve blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood flow;
  • Although increased body weight increases the risk of osteoarthritis in both men and women, the relationship is significantly stronger in women [ 102 — 104 ];
  • Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person has one or more pauses in breathing during sleep;
  • Other helpful changes are to quit smoking, reduce salt, and get regular physical activity.

MOA contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting and revising the manuscript. JSP contributed to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting and revising the manuscript.

Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index BMIshould be used.

Body mass index, Body fat percentage, Body adiposity indices, Overweight, Obesity, Non-communicable diseases Introduction The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been on the increase in many countries irrespective of their economic. Overweight and obesity are usually defined as the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Globally there are 1.

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BMI is relatively easy to calculate, inexpensive, and hence is widely used in the epidemiological studies. However, it does not distinguish between fat and lean body mass. On the other hand, densitometry, DEXA, and MRI provide more accurate measures of obesity but are unsuitable for epidemiological studies since they require specialized equipment and skilled manpower; and they are expensive. NIR is not subject to variation by ethnicity, consumption of food and beverages, or exercise and it does not require pre-test calibration.

BMI has been used to determine overweight and obesity because it is simple, inexpensive and non-invasive.

Introduction

It is a surrogate measure of body fatness since it measures excess weight rather than excess body fat. However, these techniques do not accurately and precisely characterize persons by body compositions percentage body fat or muscle mass. DEXA is a direct method of measuring body adiposity but it is expensive and cannot be used in epidemiological studies because of the time and financial implications.

However, BMI, as compared to weight and height, is just an index of weight excess, rather than body fatness compositions 16 and does not differentiate between excess fat, muscle, or bone mass, nor does it provide any indications for the distribution of fat among individuals. BIA has been shown to measure body fat accurately in both resource limited areas and epidemiological studies. It is based on the principle that lean tissue, which contains large amount of water and electrolytes, is a good electrical conductor and fat, which is anhydrous, is a poor conductor.

Studies have been carried out on the use of BIA to assess body compositions: Most epidemiological studies use BMI as the method of estimation for overweight and obesity. There is a need to compare BMI to other field methods because of its limitations; and a field method, such as BIA, may be more appropriate because it distinguishes between fat and lean body mass.

This study also examined the nature of the relationship i. Materials and Methods Participants and design This was a cross-sectional survey design of a household-based sample of adults 18 years and older using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique to recruit subjects. The research setting was the Alimosho local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria, with a population of 1,277,714.

Fat risk even if you are healthy weight

Using the WHO 25 guidelines for conducting community surveys, five out of eleven political wards into which Alimosho area is divided were randomly chosen and three census enumeration areas EAs were randomly selected in each of the five chosen political wards.

Informed written consent was provided by the participants after the details of the study were thoroughly explained. Confidentiality and anonymity were ensured and results of each of the subjects were presented to them.

Participants with high blood pressure and BMI were advised to seek medical interventions. Houses with odd numbers were selected for participation in the study.

  1. Prior knee injury and occupational factors have also been associated with knee osteoarthritis [ 101 ].
  2. Other risk factors include a low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist. Using the WHO 25 guidelines for conducting community surveys, five out of eleven political wards into which Alimosho area is divided were randomly chosen and three census enumeration areas EAs were randomly selected in each of the five chosen political wards.
  3. After 21 years of follow-up, and adjustments for social demographic variables, the odds ratio for developing dementia and AD later in life was 2.
  4. Research also shows that exercise is one of the best treatments for osteoarthritis.
  5. Dr Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, a cardiologist at Mayo, said. Igumbor Find articles by Ehimario U.

Subjects within the age range of 18 years and older in each of the houses with odd numbers were recruited for this study. Therefore, a total of 1571 adults consented to participate in the study. Measurements Physical measurements taken included height, weight, hip and WC, and body composition.

Diseases and Disorders Associated with Excess Body Weight

Guest mode was used throughout the period of this study since it allows the researcher to programme the unit for a one-time use without resetting a Personal data number. Every participant was instructed not to step on the measuring platform until 0. The participant was asked to step onto the measurement platform within about 30 seconds after 0. After the measurement was taken, readings were automatically displayed in this order: Readings were recorded for each subject. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics of mean, median and standard deviation were used for normally distributed data while and interquartile range was used for not normally distributed data.

Differences between the means were determined using Kruskal-Wallis test. Level of significance was set at 0. Interpreting the body fat percentage result Gender.