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A history of the development of urban transportation

The environmental impacts of transport can be reduced by reducing the weight of vehicles, [34] sustainable styles of driving, reducing the friction of tires, encouraging electric and hybrid vehicles, improving the walking and cycling environment in cities, and by enhancing the role of public transport, especially electric rail.

Sustainable transport

At that power, only a few sections of the road need embedded cables. Natural gas is also used as a transport fuel. Green vehicles are more fuel-efficientbut only in comparison with standard vehicles, and they still contribute to traffic congestion and road crashes.

Well-patronised public transport networks based on traditional diesel buses use less fuel per passenger than private vehicles, and are generally safer and use less road space than private vehicles. Other transport choices with very low environmental impact are cycling and other human-powered vehiclesand animal powered transport. The most common green transport choice, with the least environmental impact is walking.

Transport on rails boasts an excellent efficiency see fuel efficiency in transportation. Transport and social sustainability[ edit ] A tram in MelbourneAustralia Cities with overbuilt roadways have experienced unintended consequences, linked to radical drops in public transportwalkingand cycling.

As schools were closed their mega-school replacements in outlying areas generated additional traffic; the number of cars on US roads between 7: Transit-oriented development Cities are shaped by their transport systems.

Transportation and the Urban Form

In 1939, the New York World's Fair included a model of an imagined city, built around a car-based transport system. In this "greater and better world of tomorrow", residential, commercial and industrial areas were separated, and skyscrapers loomed over a network of urban motorways. These ideas captured the popular imagination, and are credited with influencing city planning from the 1940s to the 1970s. The writings of Jane Jacobsin particular The Death and Life of Great American Cities provide a poignant reminder of what was lost in this transformation, and a record of community efforts to resist these changes.

Lewis Mumford asked "is the city for cars or for people? Mainstream transport planning in Europe has, by contrast, never been based on assumptions that the private car was the best or only solution for urban mobility. For example, the Dutch Transport Structure Scheme has since the 1970s required that demand for additional vehicle capacity only be met "if the contribution to societal welfare is positive", and since 1990 has included an explicit target to halve the rate of growth in vehicle traffic.

Greenhouse gas emissions from transport vary widely, even for cities of comparable wealth.

  • Lewis Mumford asked "is the city for cars or for people?
  • Globalization has increased the mobility of people and freight, both in relative and absolute terms, and consequently the amount of urban space required to support those activities;
  • It highlights a recent reinterpretation of mobility provided through taking a 'socio-technical perspective', and speculates on how policy thinking on urban mobility might further evolve over the next forty years;
  • Large employers such as financial institutions are the main drivers of centralization;
  • Cities have traditionally responded to growth in mobility by expanding the transportation supply, by building new highways and transit lines.

These differences cannot be explained by wealth alone but are closely linked to the rates of walkingcyclingand public transport use and to enduring features of the city including urban density and urban design. Within the United States, residents of sprawling cities make more frequent and longer car trips, while residents of traditional urban neighbourhoods make a similar number of trips, but travel shorter distances and walk, cycle and use transit more often.

Companies like Zoom in India, eHi in China, and Carrot in Mexico, are bringing car-sharing to developing countries in an effort to reduce car-related pollution, ameliorate traffic, and expand the number of people who have access to cars.

The European Commission will conduct a review of the implementation of the Action Plan in the year 2012, and will assess the need for further action.

History and Support

Cities need efficient transport systems to support their economy and the welfare of their inhabitants. Urban areas face today the challenge of making transport sustainable in environmental CO2air pollutionnoise and competitiveness congestion terms while at the same time addressing social concerns.

These range from the need to respond to health problems and demographic trends, fostering economic and social cohesion to taking into account the needs of persons with reduced mobilityfamilies and children.

Outside Western Europe, cities which have consistently included sustainability as a key consideration in transport and land use planning include Curitiba, Brazil ; Bogota, Colombia ; Portland, Oregon ; and Vancouver, Canada. The state of VictoriaAustralia passed legislation in 2010 — the Transport Integration Act [53] — to compel its transport agencies to actively consider sustainability issues including climate change impacts in transport policy, planning and operations.

Vehicle-miles traveled in the United States up to March 2009. Community and grassroots action[ edit ] Sustainable transport is fundamentally a grassroots movement, albeit one which is now recognised as of citywide, national and international significance. Whereas it started as a movement driven by environmental concerns, over these last years there has been increased emphasis on social equity and fairness issues, and in particular the need to ensure proper access and services for lower income groups and people with mobility limitations, including the fast-growing population of older citizens.

Many of the people exposed to the most vehicle noise, pollution and safety risk have been those who do not own, or cannot drive cars, and those for whom the cost of car ownership causes a severe financial burden. Recent trends[ edit ] Car travel increased a history of the development of urban transportation throughout the twentieth century, but trends since 2000 have been more complex. Oil price rises from 2003 have been linked to a decline in per capita fuel use for private vehicle travel in the USA, [58] Britain and Australia.

In 2008, global oil consumption fell by 0. Such claims can be legally challenged. For instance Norway's consumer ombudsman has targeted automakers who claim that their cars are "green", "clean" or " environmentally friendly ". Manufacturers risk fines if they fail to drop the words. Its main measures are: