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A research on the dissertation on the territory of ex yugoslavia and montenegro

The Dissolution of Yugoslavia: It is a pleasure and honor to be here with you today. Sarajevo as the venue of the conference The fact that the conference takes place in Sarajevo is significant for two reasons.

First, a proper understanding of the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the reasons behind it are essential for the peaceful and sustainable future of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the whole region.

The proper understanding is essential for the people in this region and for the representatives of the international community.

Both active involvement of emerging young leaders in their local communities and a more decisive action on the part of major international actors are imperative to ensure a peaceful and sustainable future of Bosnia and Herzegovina and to prevent the political and economic backsliding in the region.

Humanity in Action I appreciate the study of Bosnian issues, past and present, by Humanity in Action. The addition of Bosnian Fellows and the launching of their own network and projects by the Senior Fellows from Bosnia and Herzegovina are encouraging. These activities are complementary to the efforts of the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia and some other civil society organizations in the region to educate, inspire and empower young people to retake their own future and the future of their communities and their countries.

I salute the vision of Humanity in Action and its growing programs, and hope that they will embrace as many young people from the region as possible. Dissolution of Yugoslavia as a subject of analysis and research Ladies and Gentlemen, For more than twenty years, "The Dissolution of Yugoslavia: Roots of a research on the dissertation on the territory of ex yugoslavia and montenegro Conflict" has been the subject of hundreds of books and scholarly studies.

Hundreds of international meetings and conferences were held. Hundreds of contemporaries have been interviewed. Thousands of articles, commentaries, statements have been published. Nevertheless, the subject is going to be with us for a long time to come. It will be with us until the historical truth is recognized and historical justice has been served, opening the way for the democratic future, a true reconciliation and peaceful coexistence between the people in and among the countries of the former Yugoslavia.

European dilemmas Yugoslavia was a complex community that tried to find the best solution for the problems that it faced and that the world faces today: In the end Yugoslavia failed to find a sustainable solution.

Sarajevo as the venue of the conference

The international community has still been searching for the right answers, the answers that would truly reflect and correspond with the spirit of the times. Some may find it paradoxical, but it is important to understand that Yugoslavia strived, albeit in different circumstances, toward the same goal that the European Union has been striving toward for sixty years now: Today the European Union is, once again, at the crossroads.

We are witnessing daily efforts to overcome the crisis and strengthen the unique nature of the European project. The European crisis is a part of much wider, complex and unpredictable, world economic, financial and political dynamics. Its solution requires wisdom, courage and sacrifice of some individual interests for the sake of a higher goal.

Yugoslavia was also confronted with a crisis that required a high level of political maturity, responsibility and awareness of the spirit of the times. Regrettably, in spite of all the efforts made by the international community, it fell apart in an unprecedentedly brutal way — amidst enormous human loss and suffering, crimes against humanity and war crimes, a mass exodus and population transfer, material devastation and genocide.

Two Yugoslavias The Yugoslavia that fell apart, the so called "second Yugoslavia" 1945-1991provided an important institutional frame for the national emancipation of all its nations as well as for the definition of the borders of its republics and provinces.

Those borders are valid and internationally recognized today. The self-determination of the republics and the former Kosovo province, and their subsequent independence, marked the end of the historical process inaugurated by the Berlin Congress of 1878.

The second Yugoslavia was preceded by another state form during the period from 1918 to 1941. Thus, both of them covered most of the 20th century.

In the history of the Balkan nations, this is not a small achievement. Why did Yugoslavia fall apart?

Humanity in Action

It fell apart because of the different perceptions of its very birth and different concepts of the nature of the state, the way the country should have been organized and governed. On the other hand, other nations, Slovenes and Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins and Bosnians defended their concept of an association of equal nations. They rejected to be absorbed or assimilated within the Serbian concept of Yugoslavia.

At the very end of it, Serbia rejected the proposal of a creation of the union of equal states or confederation. A new paradigm that should have been based on the genuine reassessment of the achievements and failures in the history of Yugoslavia - and thus acceptable to all - was not found.

Why was it not possible for Yugoslavia to dissolve in a peaceful way? The answer is the following: The emancipation of the nations within Yugoslavia was an inevitable, natural process.

The evolution of Yugoslavia toward a more flexible federation can be followed through the many constitutional changes in the period from 1946 to 1974. The trend intensified in the 1960s at the start of the process of a true decentralization of Yugoslavia. The demand for more independence was put forward by all republics and provinces, although at different levels and in different spheres.

This was the time when a part of the Serbian political elite — too — preferred a level of decentralization from the federal authorities. The process was eventually temporarily stopped when all republican leaderships were swept away by conservatives in the Party and the Army, especially in Serbia, with the blessings from the Soviet Union. The 1974 Constitution Still, the impact of the decentralization process could not be erased.

It culminated in the 1974 Constitution, which incorporated all the demands put forward by former republican political elites. Although the new Constitution was lacking in many areas, its importance was paramount. It established the basic frame for a confederal Yugoslavia and its continuation on a new constitutional basis.

A research on the dissertation on the territory of ex yugoslavia and montenegro

The 1974 Constitution was in fact the only option and the only guarantee for the survival of the Yugoslav state. The Constitution was accepted by all republics except Serbia. The Serbian elites rejected the concept because their main aim was to prevent this very development. Afterwards, all their activities focused on a single goal: The Serbian elites aspired to establish a state in their own mold, a state under their domination as the most numerous nation in the country and, allegedly, the only statehood-capable nation in the Balkans.

The demand for the revision of the 1974 Constitution was put forward in 1977. Other republics did not accept it. Preparations were underway to create the necessary conditions for the homogenization of Serbs throughout Yugoslavia. The majority of leading Serbian political, cultural, intellectual, military and religious representatives participated in this endeavor and preparations for the war.

Memorandum by the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts The widely known Memorandum by the Serbian Academy was published in 1986 as a strategic blueprint for the Greater Serbia national project. In fact, the Memorandum just followed on the Serbian national program from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries.

It also revealed the ongoing preparations in that direction. Historians began to play an increasingly important role in the interpretation of all newly open issues. Their task was to create the necessary conditions for the destruction of the former neighbors through successive campaigns of demonization of other ethnic groups as alleged enemies.

Dobrica Cosic One of the key issues — the issue of borders which was to surface if there was no agreement between the Yugoslav nations on the new Yugoslav formula — became the main topic of the public debate. The Church reiterated this position in 1992 and declared that the revision of the borders was an issue of supreme national interest. The Memorandum did not dwell on this issue because it was expected that - in the case of the collapse of Yugoslavia - Bosnia and Herzegovina would remain a part of a common state with Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia.

The Memorandum did not plan to abandon the socialist system. The issues of democratization and modernization of the country were sidelined and put off to the time when the Serbian national question has been resolved. The resolution of the national question — a greater, ethnic Serbian state at any cost - became the top political priority. The Serbian nation was glorified while other nations were vilified, especially Croats, Albanians and Muslims, and, partly, Slovenes.

In fact, the process of destruction of Yugoslavia was executed under the pretext of the effort to save it. Protests were organized and orchestrated in all the regions of Yugoslavia where the indigenous Serbian population lived Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.

At the federal level, the political debate on the resolution of the crisis and the reorganization of Yugoslavia became deeply polarized between the concept of recentralization under the Serbian domination and the maintenance of the 1974 Constitution status and creation of the union of state republics within the common Yugoslav frame.

No consensus was possible between the two totally opposing sides. In 1990 Yugoslavia was on the threshold of the association agreement with the European Community, similar to the one Cyprus had at that time. The Agreement was supposed to be concluded after the expiration of the bilateral trade agreement.

However, economic reforms introduced or planned by the Federal Government had no chance of succeeding without fundamental political changes. The war blew away all reform plans. The Yugoslav Peace Conference The Yugoslav Peace Conference, convened in September 1991 by the European Community, with Lord Carrington as chairman, was the last chance to save the common Yugoslav state frame and find a solution to the divisions inflaming the country.

Eventually, the Commission would recommend that the European Community accept the requests of successor states for recognition after being given guarantees in regard to the respect of human rights and minority rights and international peace and security. The rest, as they say, is history.

Regrettably, this concept is still alive and kicking. There are still some in high positions who believe that the independence of Kosovo is negotiable. As I mentioned at the beginning, the brutal dissolution of Yugoslavia brought to light its many problems, while anticipating many problems of the contemporary times.

The collapse of the Communist Bloc and the Soviet Union were tectonic upheavals not only for the socialist countries but a research on the dissertation on the territory of ex yugoslavia and montenegro the whole world.

  • In 2005 she was one of 1000 women in the group 1000 Women for Peace nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize;
  • The Serbian nation was glorified while other nations were vilified, especially Croats, Albanians and Muslims, and, partly, Slovenes;
  • This thesis has significantly influenced the interpretation of the wars in the Serbian society;
  • Thus, it slowed down the consolidation of the region, to the detriment of Serbia itself and to the detriment of peace and stability in the region;
  • In 2003 the European Union offered the prospect of membership to all newly established countries of the former Yugoslavia;
  • However, the answer Serbia got from the international community is unequivocal:

Since then, we have been witnessing historical shifts of economic and political power and the uneasy process of adjustment between old and new emerging powers. The unfinished Yugoslav crisis reflects this new, unsettled and fragile international political landscape. The Serbian elite has deftly used the uncertainty and volatility of the international political transition to keep open the issue of borders.

Thus, it slowed down the consolidation of the region, to the detriment of Serbia itself and to the detriment of peace and stability in the region. The role of the international community In our analysis of the dissolution of Yugoslavia, we have now reached one of the most important parts of the attempted crisis management. This is the part played by the international community.

We have to remember that the dissolution of Yugoslavia ended with the independence of Montenegro in 2006 and Kosovo in 2008.

  1. It is high time for the Serbian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina to break free from the imposed exclusive guilt for it.
  2. The international community has still been searching for the right answers, the answers that would truly reflect and correspond with the spirit of the times. The region has its own perception of the problem.
  3. The world will get tired, will give up on us and we will have achieved our goal.

The process of the dissolution of the country lasted for almost 20 years, almost as long as the preparations for its destruction. The United States was instrumental in ending the wars in the Balkans. In 2003 the European Union offered the prospect of membership to all newly established countries of the former Yugoslavia.

The role of the European Union in the establishment of the rule of law in devastated regional post-conflict societies has been indispensable. Many different arrangements established by the Union provided for the introduction of standards and institutions that were - and still are - essential for the democratic transformation of the countries in the region.