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A study on the relation between narcissism and the excessive use of facebook

Especially in Korea, more and more children and adolescents are indulged in SNS, and adults also have many side effects of SNS such as neglect of work, relationship problems, and attention seeking behavior.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between implicit narcissism and social networking services addiction, mediated by attachment instability. The study comprised 185 cyber university students 69 males and 116 females and the mean age was 40. Simple correlation showed that implicit narcissism and attachment instability were highly correlated with SNS addiction. Also, the regression analysis showed that attachment anxiety mediated between implicit narcissism and SNS addiction.

The implications and limitations of this study were discussed. What the paper adds - Vulnerable narcissists who have anxiety attachment type are easy to fall into problematic SNS use. Introduction The desire to communicate with others can be seen as a basic desire of humans to express themselves from birth. In contrast to face-to-face communication channels, the number of people who communicate through social networking sites SNS has increased owing to the advancement of communication technology.

Due to the development of social networks, the scope, speed, and place of communication among people has changed drastically. In recent years, the use of SNS has been steadily expanding. In particular, after the increase in the number of SNS users in their 20s, the average time spent on social networks by people in their 50s and above has increased drastically. As a result, the percentage of people aged 20-59 years who are at risk for smartphone addiction increased from 8.

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Problematic SNS use is different from alcohol or drug addiction, but it can be classified as a category of behavior addiction, such as gambling Karaiskos et al. Excessive use to interfere with social and occupational functioning leads to an addiction, whether it is a substance, or an action.

The side effects of the overuse of SNS are relatively common in Korea. Recently, there have been a lot of people engaging in taking self-portraits or pictures of themselves. Many people are uploading these pictures or information about themselves rather than focusing on interpersonal relationships. Psychological variables of these people are attracting the attention of researchers. Many researchers have argued that communication through SNS is particularly relevant to certain personality trait Zhang et al.

The most frequently studied personality type is narcissism. Narcissism can be classified into explicit narcissism and implicit narcissism. Explicit narcissism is characterized by constantly seeking positive evaluation from others by revealing narcissistic traits on the surface, having exaggerated self-confidence, and privileged consciousness with an illusion of achievement and success APA, 2013.

Contrary to commonly known explicit narcissism, implicit narcissism is characterized by low self-esteem and negative self-concept.

To compensate for a weak self-concept, a person with a high implicit narcissism tries to protect himself or herself by reacting sensitively to the criticism, or negatively evaluating others Kernberg, 1975. It is highly likely that people with high implicit narcissism will try to look good in situations where they do not have to reveal themselves directly, like on SNS, because of the fear of criticism and negative evaluation.

There are several studies on the relationship between narcissism and SNS addiction.

The usage of Facebook as it relates to narcissism, self-esteem and loneliness

Narcissistic people upload their own photographs to attract attention on social networks DeWall et al. They share information easily with others; and choose easy content, timing, words, etc.

Attachment is an emotional tie between an infant and the caregiver, and it is known that attachment in infancy is the basis of interpersonal relationships throughout life Bowlby, 1979. The attachment type of an individual changes with time, and the attachment object expands from the parent- child relationship of early childhood to peers and lovers Brennan et al.

A study also found that adult attachment styles were classified into three categories: According to this viewpoint, a person can be classified as a specific type of attachment according to their position in terms of avoidance and anxiety.

On the other hand, children who grew up in a non-responsive parenting environment developed an insecure type of attachment with an impaired ability to understand and name emotions. In recent years, studies on attachment types and various addictions have increased Schimmenti et al. In Korea, studies on the relationship between attachment type, internet addiction, and smartphone addiction were conducted on adolescents and college students. Adults are less likely to be addicted if they have healthy and stable relationships with their friends, lovers, etc.

Studies on unstable attachment and behavioral addiction include relationship addiction and internet addiction Flores, 2004. In recent years, there has been interest in early adult instability attachment and problematic SNS use Oldmeadow et al. Because of this, people who show attachment instability such as attachment anxiety become addicted to an object that lacks interpersonal relationships Hart et al.

  1. Narcissistic people upload their own photographs to attract attention on social networks DeWall et al.
  2. Once informed consent was obtained, participants were given via direct distribution self-report measures to assess nature of overall Facebook usage; time spent on Facebook; meaningfulness of Facebook usage, frequency and meaningfulness of status updates and number of relationships formed. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.
  3. The study more specifically addressed usage of the status update feature within Facebook.
  4. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed.

A sensitivity to SNS such as Facebook of anxiously attached invidividuals can predict more expressive and attention seeking behavior Hart et al. In a study on peer attachment and SNS addiction, it was found that children and adolescents with poor peer attachment tend to depend on artificial objects, like the mobile Schimmenti et al.

  1. Worldwide, users spend a lot of time interacting on Facebook with other platform members and presenting themselves.
  2. Once informed consent was obtained, participants were given via direct distribution self-report measures to assess nature of overall Facebook usage; time spent on Facebook; meaningfulness of Facebook usage, frequency and meaningfulness of status updates and number of relationships formed.
  3. Also, the regression analysis showed that attachment anxiety mediated between implicit narcissism and SNS addiction. In contrast to face-to-face communication channels, the number of people who communicate through social networking sites SNS has increased owing to the advancement of communication technology.
  4. Our present study is one of the first steps of this investigation. We are further working on this topic and would be glad to find other researchers, in Germany and other countries, who are interested in a cooperation to extend our research.

People with implicit narcissism can show insecure attachment avoidance and anxiety in close interpersonal relationships and this can make them vulnerable to addiction problems Benett, 2006. Based on previous research, it is suggested that people with high narcissism try to fulfill their desire not to be satisfied in interpersonal relationships due to sensitivity and vulnerability through SNS.

Although there is a direct influence on addiction tendency, the hypothesis of this study states that attachment instability will mediate the relationship between implicit narcissism and SNS addiction tendency.

  • According to this viewpoint, a person can be classified as a specific type of attachment according to their position in terms of avoidance and anxiety;
  • In a study on peer attachment and SNS addiction, it was found that children and adolescents with poor peer attachment tend to depend on artificial objects, like the mobile Schimmenti et al.

Material and Method Research Subjects and Procedures Research participants were 200 cyber university students who were taking mental health as a liberal arts course. Participants who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study completed self-reported questionnaire for 15-20 minutes individually via online and the responses were automatically stored in Excel.

A total of 185 data 69 males, 116 females were analyzed except for those who answered unfaithfully. The scale consisted of 24 items of external narcissism and 18 items of internal narcissism. Only 18 items of implicit narcissism were used in this study and 5 points Likert scale from "Not at all" 1 point to "very much" 5 point.

The higher the score, the higher the implicit narcissism tendency.

  • Material and Method Research Subjects and Procedures Research participants were 200 cyber university students who were taking mental health as a liberal arts course;
  • In recent years, the use of SNS has been steadily expanding;
  • In Korea, studies on the relationship between attachment type, internet addiction, and smartphone addiction were conducted on adolescents and college students;
  • The implications and limitations of this study were discussed;
  • In a study on peer attachment and SNS addiction, it was found that children and adolescents with poor peer attachment tend to depend on artificial objects, like the mobile Schimmenti et al;
  • To compensate for a weak self-concept, a person with a high implicit narcissism tries to protect himself or herself by reacting sensitively to the criticism, or negatively evaluating others Kernberg, 1975.

The internal reliability coefficient of implicit narcissism in the original scale was 0. In Korea, Kim 2004 used a modified and validated study. This scale is to assess the adult attachment style in two dimensions: Anxiety attachment indicates fear of being abandoned or rejected, while avoidance attachment indicates rejection of dependency and intimacy in interpersonal relationships.

The scale consisted of 36 items, and there were 18 items of anxiety attachment and 18 items of avoidance attachment, and 7 points Likert scale from "Not at all" 1 point to "very much" 7 point.

The higher the score of each subscale, the higher the attachment type can be.

Facebook addiction linked to narcissism and other psychological factors, study finds

In this study, reliability coefficients were 0. It consists of a total of 20 questions and is designed to mark the 4-point Likert scale from 'not at all 1 point ' to 'very much 4 points '. The higher the score, the higher the overuse of SNS. In this study, the reliability coefficient was 0. Statistical analysis was performed to examine the demographic characteristics of the collected data and internal consistency was analyzed to determine the reliability of the measurement tools.

Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the main variables. To analyze the mediating effect, hierarchical regression analysis was performed on three variables of implicit narcissism, attachment instability, and SNS addiction tendency. Sobel test was performed to confirm the significance of the mediation effect. Results Demographic Characteristics The demographic characteristics of the study participants are shown in Table 1.

There were 69 men 37.