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An introduction to the elective head of state for the american chief executive

Definition, Functions and Types of Executive Article shared by: Definition, Functions and Types of Executive!

The Executive Branch

The second but most powerful organ of the government is the Executive. It is that organ which implements the laws passed by the legislature and the policies of the government.

The rise of welfare state has tremendously increased the functions of the state, and in reality of the executive. In common usage people tend to identify the executive with the government. In contemporary times, there has taken place a big increase in the power and role of the executive in every state. In its broad form, it is taken to mean all the functionaries, political power-holders Political Executive and permanent civil servants who undertake the execution of laws and policies and run the administration of state.

In its narrow form, it is taken to mean only the executive heads ministers i. In the narrow form, the civil service and its administrative functions are not included in the realm of the Executive. Traditionally, only the narrow meaning used to be accepted by the political scientists.

However, in modern times, the executive is defined in its broader form and it covers both the Political Executive as well as the Civil Service. It includes all the agencies of government that are concerned with the execution of states will as expressed in terms of law. The political executive performs the function of making policies and ensuring that all the laws are properly enforced by all the departments of the government.

The permanent executive i. It works an introduction to the elective head of state for the american chief executive the supervision and control of the political executive. Two Parts of Executive: It consists of the executive head of the state and other heads of the executive departments is ministers. Ministers are political leaders. They are mostly elected representative of the people and responsible for all their decisions and policies before the public.

Political Executive work for a fixed tenure of about 5 years. It acts as a temporary executive in the sense that it changes after every election.

After completing one tenure, ministers have to again contest elections. They can again become ministers only when the party to which they belong returns to power as the majority party.

The ministers are amateurs, non-experts and non-professionals. Their function is to formulate policies and get these policies and laws approved from the Legislature. Thereafter these policies and laws of the State are implemented by the civil servants, who work under the control of Political Executive. The political executive heads the government. Each minister is head of a department or some of the government. It consists of the civil servants Bureaucracy from the lowest to the highest levels.

It carries out the day to day administration by working in the government departments. The civil servants are politically neutral. They do not owe allegiance to any political party. Their job is to carry out the laws and policies of the government without any political consideration. They are specially educated and trained persons. They are experts and professionals. They give expert advice and opinion as well as collect, classify and present data to the political executive on the basis of which the latter takes all decisions.

Once appointed, the civil servants remain in office till the attainment of the retirement age, usually up to the age of 55 or 60 years. They get regular and fixed salaries and are hierarchically organised into higher and lower relationships. Functions of the Executive: The primary function of executive is to enforce laws and to maintain law and order in the state. Whenever a breach of law takes place, it is the responsibility of the executive to plug the breach and bring the offenders to book.

Methods of Choosing a Head of State

Each government department is responsible for the implementation of the laws and policies concerning its work. For maintaining law and order in the state, the executive organises and maintains the police force.

All major appointments are made by the chief executive. Likewise, the President of the United States makes a very large number of key appointments. All the secretaries who head various government departments, Judges of the Supreme Court and other Federal Courts, the Federal officials in the States etc.

The members of the civil service are also appointed by the Chief executive. This is, usually, done on the recommendation of a service recruitment commission.

It recruits on merit, candidates for appointment to these cadres. Similar practice prevails in almost all the states. As such appointment-making is a function of the executive. It is the responsibility of the executive to decide as to which treaties are to be signed with which other countries. The executive negotiates the treaties in accordance with the procedure defined by international law and also in accordance with the provisions the constitution of the state.

Each treaty is signed by a member of the executive. Most of the treaties also require ratification by the legislature of the State. It is again the responsibility of the executive to secure legislative approval for the treaties signed by it.

Gerald Ford

Defence, War and Peace Functions: One of the key functions of the state is to defend and preserve the unity and integrity of the country and protect it in the event of an external aggression or war. It is the responsibility of the executive to undertake this work.

To organise military for the defence of the state, to prepare for and fight the war, if it becomes necessary, and to negotiate and sign peace settlement after every war, are the functions performed by the executive. The executive is the final judge of the nature of the threat to the security of the country. It has the prime responsibility to take all such steps as are needed in the interest of the security and integrity of the state.

The chief executive of the state is also the supreme commander of the armed forces of the state. Foreign Policy-making and the Conduct of Foreign Relations: In this age of ever-increasing global interdependence, it has become one of the most important functions of a government to formulate the foreign policy of the state and to conduct foreign relations.

This function is also performed by the executive. The executive formulates the goals of national interest and fixes the priorities. It first formulates the foreign policy of the nation and then implements it for securing the defined goals of national interest.

The executive appoints the ambassadors of the state to other states. Modern welfare state has to carry out a large number of functions for securing the socio-economic-cultural development of its people.

It has to formulate policies, prepare short-term and long-term plans and implement these. All actions of the state are guided by definite policies and plans. It is the executive which undertakes the task of policy-making and developmental planning. These are the two most important functions of the executive, because by these the state carries out its objective of promoting the welfare of its people. Functions relating to Law-making: Law-making is primarily the function of the legislature. However, the executive also plays a role in law-making.

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  • They are mostly elected representative of the people and responsible for all their decisions and policies before the public;
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In this sphere too the role of the executive has been increasing by leaps and bounds. In a parliamentary system, the ministers are also members of the legislature and they play a leading role in law-making. Most of the bills for legislation are introduced and piloted by them in the legislature. Most of the time of the legislature is spent in passing the governmental bills.

The bills passed by the legislature become laws only after these are signed by the Head of the State.

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  • It includes all the agencies of government that are concerned with the execution of states will as expressed in terms of law.

Law-making under the system of Delegated Legislation: The system of delegated legislation has considerably increased the law-making role of the executive. Under this system, the legislature delegates some of its law-making powers to the executive. The executive then makes rules on the basis of these powers. The amount of delegated legislation made by the executive far out-weighs the laws passed by the legislature.

It is the legislature which is the custodian of all finances. It has the power to impose, or reduce or eliminate a tax. However, in actual practice, the executive exercises a number of financial functions. It has the responsibility to prepare the budget. It proposes the levy of new taxes or changes in tax structure and administration.

It collects and spends the money as sanctioned by the legislature. The executive decides the ways and means through which the money is to be collected and spent. It formulates all economic policies and plans. It takes suitable measures for regulating the production and distribution of goods, money supply, prices and exports and imports.

It contracts foreign loans, negotiates foreign aid and maintains the financial credibility of the state. The appointment of judges by the executive is regarded as the best method for ensuring the independence of judiciary.