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An introduction to the issue of breast cancer in todays society

  1. HER2 helps breast cancer cells grow, so taking a medication to slow the production of this protein may help slow cancer growth.
  2. Perhaps the best way to see below the surface of your breast is with an imaging test called a mammogram. These lymph nodes will be tested.
  3. The tumor is up to 5 cm across and it may have spread to some lymph nodes. Epidemiological data from the United States show that breast cancer death rates were stable from 1980 to 1989 for women aged 20 to 64 and increased for women aged 65 and over.
  4. Breast cancer is cancer that develops in breast cells. This surgery removes your healthy breast to reduce your risk of developing breast cancer again.
  5. During this test, your doctor will remove a tissue sample from the suspicious area to have it tested. Other, less common types of breast cancer include.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The palpability of breast tumors has facilitated diagnosis and documentation since ancient times. Surgical resection was introduced in the 18th century. The advent of modern medicine led to the development of novel treatment options that include hormonal, targeted and chemo-therapies. There are still several therapeutic challenges including the treatment of triple negative breast cancer TNBCand overcoming drug resistance.

Scope of review The increased incidence and awareness of breast cancer has led to significant changes in diagnosis and treatment in recent decades.

But, mankind has come a long way. How is breast cancer treated today and how do risk factors, breast cancer subtype and drug resistance contribute to the therapeutic challenges at the turn of the 21st century?

Major conclusions Breast cancer remains a serious public health issue worldwide. However, appreciable growth in our understanding of breast cancer in the past century has led to remarkable progress in the early detection, treatment and prevention of the disease. The clinical focus is shifting more towards tailored therapy as more targets are characterized and novel highly innovative approaches are developed.

General significance Tracing the history of breast cancer, highlights how increased awareness of the disease, and progress in research and development have enhance our understanding of the disease.

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Introduction Breast cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth of malignant cells in the mammary epithelial tissue. The disease affects both genders. Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women worldwide, with an incidence that rises dramatically with age. This translates into about 1.

What is Breast Cancer?

As alarming as it may seem, the mortality to incidence ratio for breast cancer is around 0. Breast cancer in the 21st century is therefore not necessarily terminal. Better therapeutic options and major improvements in public health and care have resulted in a dramatic reduction in mortality and a major increase in longevity. Since 1999, incidence rates of breast cancer have stabilized among women aged 50 or over, which may reflect trends in mammography screening rates.

Epidemiological data from the United States show that breast cancer death rates were stable from 1980 to 1989 for women aged 20 to 64 and increased for women aged 65 and over. In most countries, however, breast cancer incidence rates are increasing, including in countries with historically higher rates, such as those in Europe, as well as regions with historically lower incidence rates like many countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa [4].

This rise is generally due to changes in reproductive patterns such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, number of births, and duration of breastfeeding [5]. The historically higher increase in breast cancer incidence in developed countries is largely due to factors associated with economic development and urbanization including obesity, consumption of processed foods, physical inactivity, and changes in reproductive patterns delayed childbearing; having fewer children; earlier age at menarche; and shorter duration of breastfeeding.

The rising incidence in developing countries is likely due to the increasing adaptation of risk factors associated with the Western lifestyle [6]. The visible signs and symptoms of breast cancer and the palpability and tangibility of the lumps at later stages of the disease have enabled easy diagnosis by physicians in almost every period of recorded history.

Despite the noticeable manifestation of the disease since ancient times, e. Besides, from the ancient civilizations and through the 18th and 19th centuries it was recognized that breast cancer could not be cured once the cancer had spread.

Everything You Want to Know About Breast Cancer

In many cultures, breast cancer is still considered a taboo subject. As a result, many patients are reluctant to candidly discuss their disease or its symptoms.

Breast cancer: prevention and control

However, moral and ethical reforms have been introduced in several societies and breast cancer topics are an open discussion in all forum or media today. Further, with the advent of electronic media and the Internet, online discussions on the awareness of the disease are now accessible even to the remote areas and cultures of the world.

The pink symbol of breast cancer, adopted in the early 1990s, represents the international symbol of breast cancer awareness and is used by various breast cancer organizations to promote breast cancer awareness and to support fundraising campaigns.