Homeworks academic service


An overview of the computer crimes in the modern world

New Vision of Computer Forensic Science: Need of Cyber Crime Law. Abstract A Cyber space is a virtual space that has become as important as real space for business, education and politics. The growing danger from crimes committed against computers, or against information on computers, is beginning to claim attention in the India.

Computer Forensic allows for the evidence of cyber crime to be admissible in court when prosecuting the cyber criminal.

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

In most countries, existing laws are likely to be unenforceable against such crime. The main negative consequences is the digital soup so vague that many refer to it as the dark sides of technology and that cyber criminal currently have upper hand.

The applicability and effectiveness of our existing laws need to be constantly reviewed to face the risk coming from the cyber world. Aim of this paper is to act as a catalyst to raise awareness regarding computer forensic which continues to grow as one of the most important branch of science and help in investigation of cyber crime which continues to grow as one of the most potent threats to the Internet and computer users of the cyber society of 21st century in India.

Introduction The rapid change occurring in the present era of Information Technology and the computer has gained popularity in every aspect of our lives. This includes the use of computers by persons involved in the commission of crimes.

Today, computers play a major role in almost every crime that is committed. Every crime that is committed is not necessarily a computer crime, but it does mean that law enforcement must become much more computer literate just to be able to keep up with the criminal element.

Extending the rule of law into cyberspace is a critical step to create a trustworthy environment for people and different activities. Computer forensic science helps in maintaining the trustworthy environment for cyber society by applying a set of procedure and integrated analytical techniques to extract evidence when computer is used as evidence in criminal investigation.

To provide this self-protection, computer forensic science should focus on implementing cyber security plans addressing people, process, and technology issues.

There is need to commit the resources to educate employees on security practices, develop thorough plans for the handling of sensitive data, records and transactions, and incorporate robust security technology, such as firewalls, anti-virus software, intrusion detection tools, and authentication services, throughout the organizations' computer systems [1].

One of the major challenges, we are facing in law improvement in this new era is keeping up with growing demands of technology. Computer technology changes are so rapid that if a department is up to date today; their equipment will probably be outdated.

Since the budgets have not been increased to keep pace with the rapid change in technology its becoming difficult for law enforcement agencies to keep up with this rapid change.

The criminal element is not as challenged to keep pace, and an overview of the computer crimes in the modern world usually well financed and having the resources to continue purchasing the newer technologies [1]. Computer Forensic Science and their needs Computer forensic is a science of acquiring, preserving, retrieving and presenting data that has been processed electronically and stored on computer media and according to Department Of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI ,computer forensic includes formalized and approved methodology to collect, analyze and present data in a court of law [2].

Computer forensic is needed due to the complex nature of electronic media. Traditional forensic science technique will not work in recovering and compiling computer based evidence. There is tremendous amount of fraud being committed using computers. Everyday thousands of computer users are bombarded with tons of bogus email. There is always someone on the internet typing to find a new victim to commit a crime against.

There are fake websites, phony on line auctions, credit card fraud and a host of other crimes. The percentage of fraud is going up and people are losing thousands of dollars to cyber thieves.

Attacks against companies are also very rampant on the internet. Hackers and other such individuals are always trying to compromise one system on the internet.

It may range from a home user to a sensitive government system. Hackers have been known to steal valuable information from an overview of the computer crimes in the modern world systems and hold the information for ransom. Thus, all these various examples necessitate the need for computer forensic to save cyber society. Techniques of Computer Forensic Email Forensic Techniques As a result of e-commerce transactions and email communications over the internet, a new type of virtual evidence has been created.

Computer related investigations can involve the review of email folder achieves to determine internet policy abuses in businesses or government agencies. Using computer forensics procedures, processes and tools, the computer forensics specialist can identify fragments of email messages that were dumped from computer memory during past work sessions.

Even after data has been deleted, much information remains available for discovery of the Windows swap file. These same files are then left behind as a large erased file in unallocated spaces. Unless specifically defragmented and written over, these erased swap files can be retrieved and archived for analysis. Password cracking Techniques and Cryptanalysis Password cracking is a problem facing by computer forensic scientist.

Numerous programs are available on the internet for cracking passwords, including the Password Cracking Library PCL available at various web sites e. Cryptanalysis is one of two branches of cryptology that is concerned with breaking and defeating cryptography. Cryptanalysis can be an invaluable tool for Computer Forensic Scientists to penetrate encrypted files and passwords and Cryptanalyst is the attacker who is concerned with eavesdropping and breaking encrypted chipper text.

  • In most countries, existing laws are likely to be unenforceable against such crime;
  • The percentage of fraud is going up and people are losing thousands of dollars to cyber thieves;
  • Password cracking Techniques and Cryptanalysis Password cracking is a problem facing by computer forensic scientist;
  • Computer forensic science helps in maintaining the trustworthy environment for cyber society by applying a set of procedure and integrated analytical techniques to extract evidence when computer is used as evidence in criminal investigation;
  • Countries that provided legislation were evaluated to determine whether their criminal statutes had been extended into cyberspace to cover ten different [1] types of cyber crime in four categories:

The Encyclopedia Britannica defines Cyber crime as any crime that is committed by means of special knowledge or expert use of computer technology. Cyber crimes are harmful acts committed from or against a computer or network. Cyber Crimes differ from most terrestrial crimes in four ways: They are easy to learn how to commit.

An overview of the computer crimes in the modern world

They require few resources relative to the potential damage caused. They can be committed in a jurisdiction without being physically present in it. They are often not clearly illegal. A criminal might use a computer to keep track of the robberies a person committed or the drug person sold, which means that even stick-ups, breaking and entering and every drug transaction could be considered a computer crime [1]. Computer — related crime is a real expanding phenomenon. It seems very difficult to make only territorial laws applicable to online activities that have no relevant or even determinable geographic location.

Web pages such as the e-commerce sites recently hit by widespread, distributed denial of service attacks may not be covered by outdated laws as protected when it attempted to prosecute the perpetrator of the May Love Bug virus, which caused billion of dollars of damage in worldwide [1]. In India, Information Technology Bill came into focus for regulating cyber world [3] To meet the challenges posed by new kinds of crime possible by computer technology, many countries have also reviewed an overview of the computer crimes in the modern world respective domestic criminal laws so as to prevent computer related crimes.

The legislations enacted by different countries cover only few of the classified computer related offences. Prospective role of cyber laws Cyber Laws have an important role in representing and defining the norms of the cyber society.

Cyber Laws help in giving the right to enter into legally enforceable digital contracts. Cyber Laws help in maintaining the Cyber properties. Cyber Laws help in to carry on online business. Cyber Laws help in providing legal reorganization for Electronic documents and Digital signature.

Countries were asked to provide laws that would be used to prosecute criminal acts involving both private and public sector computers. Countries that provided legislation were evaluated to determine whether their criminal statutes had been extended into cyberspace to cover ten different [1] types of cyber crime in four categories: Data-related crimes, including interception, modification, and theft.

Network-related crimes, including interference and sabotage. Crimes of access, including hacking and virus distribution. Associated computer-related crimes, including aiding and abetting cyber criminals, Computer fraud and Computer forgery.

Technology Challenges in Cyber Crime In the present era of information technology, the technology in World has become more advanced; law enforcement agencies must provide their computer crime investigators with the technology required to conduct complex computer investigations. Thus, they must have a working knowledge of computer-based and Internet investigations if they are to handle these crimes effectively.

Denial of Service DoS attacks and more particularly the distributed ones DDoS are one of the latest and most powerful threats that have appeared in the world of networking. There are two principal classes of attacks: In this paper, we will focus only on flooding attacks [5]. The Internet The internet is joy for members of the law enforcement community.

An overview of the computer crimes in the modern world

On one hand, it facilitates one's ability to communicate and gather information. On the other hand, it enables the criminal element to do the same. The criminal element actually embraced the benefits of the Internet long before the law enforcement community did it and in some ways, the latter have resisted this tool [2]. Data Theft Law enforcement is charged with the investigation of the theft of data from companies, but the main concern of the law enforcement community is the protection of their own data and unauthorized access to their files.

This may require law enforcement agencies to bring in a security consultant to be sure that their own data is secure from unauthorized access. The only way to ensure that their system is totally safe is to not to have outside access to it [2]. If they are connected to the Internet through phone lines through a network or a modem, one cannot assume that their system will not be compromised at some point.

These security measures will also alert them to an actual intrusion. Child Pornography Child pornography distribution is a natural for the Internet. It offers anonymity and ease of transferring images and text.

  1. The paper gives a good overview of the subject from as the types of crimes that occur in examines such definitive issues as crime in the modern world,.
  2. Introduction The rapid change occurring in the present era of Information Technology and the computer has gained popularity in every aspect of our lives.
  3. Preferably Wylie dodges and strengthens her! Computer technology changes are so rapid that if a department is up to date today; their equipment will probably be outdated.
  4. Numidia and Rightish Roosevelt crazy their ferrimagnetismo seek and overcome without limits. Hackers have been known to steal valuable information from e-commerce systems and hold the information for ransom.
  5. Attacks against companies are also very rampant on the internet. Experts, who investigate only cyber crime are required to stop the cyber crime.

Child Pornographers trade images of very young children, depending on their preferences, to other pornographers that will trade them to others or simply keep them for their own collection. White Collar Crime Encyclopedia Britannica defines White Collar Crime as crimes committed by persons of relatively high social or economic status in connection with their regular occupation.

Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law

Though crimes such as stalking and pedophilia make the headlines, the majority of computer crime is white collar in nature, involving the theft of credit cards, money, identity, or intellectual property such as software or data.

Improvement in Cyber Laws To avoid the cyber crime some improvement are suggested here to protect the nations: Organization should secure their networked information by using different Technology Laws to enforce property rights work only when property owners take reasonable steps to protect their property in first place.

Governments should assure that their laws apply to cyber crimes Governments remain the dominant authority for regulating criminal behavior in most places in the world. One nation already has struggled from, and ultimately improved, its legal authority after a confrontation with the unique challenges presented by cyber crime [1].

It is crucial that other nations profit from this lesson, and examine their current laws to discern whether they are composed in a technologically neutral manner that would not exclude the prosecution of cyber criminals. Organizations, governments, civil society and cyber society should work cooperatively to strengthen legal frameworks for cyber security and cyber laws A model approach is underway in the Council of Europe comprising 41 countries to craft an international Convention on Cyber Crime.

Computer Crime

The Convention would address illegal access, illegal interception, data interference, system interference, computer-related forgery, computer-related fraud, and the aiding and abetting of these crimes. A tool that is designed to help police and other law officials analyze the internet history of computer users.

This tool is used to retrieve file slack information. As discussed before, file slack contain very valuable information and can be very helpful to investigators.

This tool can perform a verity of forensic functions. It can be installed to collect evidence as it occurs, examine disk partitions, process hidden and deleted file, create exports and a host of other features.