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Both mexican war and spanish american war were direct resu

Militarily speaking, the Spanish-American War of was so brief and relatively bloodless as to have been a mere passing episode in the history of modern warfare. Its political and diplomatic consequences, however, were enormous: The Cuban conflict was injurious to U. On the insurgent side, the war was waged largely against property and led to the destruction of sugarcane and sugar mills. Of more importance than its effect on U.

Under the Spanish commander, Capt.

Origins of the war

Spanish authorities made no adequate provision for shelter, food, sanitation, or medical care for the reconcentrados, thousands of whom died from exposure, hunger, and disease. These conditions were graphically portrayed for the U. Humanitarian concern for the suffering Cubans was added to the traditional American sympathy for a colonial people struggling for independence. While these aspects of the war created a widespread popular demand for action to halt it, the U.

The popular demand for intervention to stop the war and assure Cuban independence gained support in Congress. In the spring of both the Senate and the House of Representatives declared by concurrent resolution that belligerent rights should be accorded the insurgents.

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This expression of congressional opinion was ignored by Pres. Grover Clevelandwho opposed intervention, though he intimated in his final message to Congress that prolongation of the war might make it necessary. His successor, William McKinleywas equally desirous of preserving peace with Spain, but, in his first instructions to the new minister to Spain, Stewart L. Woodford, and again in his first message to Congress, he made it plain that the U.

President Grover Cleveland centre left and President-elect William McKinley en route to the inauguration ceremony, Library of Congress, Washington, D. In the fall of a new Spanish ministry offered concessions to the insurgents. It would recall General Weyler, abandon his reconcentration policy, and allow Cuba an elected cortes parliament with limited powers of self-government. These concessions came too late.

The insurgent leaders would now settle for nothing short of complete independence. The war went on in Cuba, and a series of incidents brought the United States to the brink of intervention.

The sensation caused by this incident was eclipsed dramatically six days later. On the night of February 15, a mighty explosion sank the Maine at her Havana anchorage, and more than of her crew were killed. Responsibility for the disaster was never determined. The Spanish government offered to submit the question of its responsibility to arbitration, but the U. The demand for intervention became insistent, in Congress, on the part of both Republicans and Democrats though such Republican leaders as Sen.

Mark Hanna and Speaker Thomas B. Reed opposed itand in the country at large. Such opposition diminished after a speech in the Senate on March 17 by Sen. Redfield Proctor of Vermontwho had just returned from a tour of Cuba. In matter-of-fact and unsensational language, Proctor described his observations of the war-torn island: Let Spain, he wrote, abandon reconcentration in fact as well as in name, declare an armistice, and accept U.

  1. Miles, occupied Puerto Rico.
  2. Peace commissioners were to meet in Paris not later than October 1. The Mexican government, headed by the ad interim Mexican president Manuel de la Pena y Pena, quickly agreed to the boundary issues.
  3. In the first half century after ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, hundreds of state, territorial, and federal legal bodies produced a complex tapestry of conflicting opinions and decisions bearing on the meaning of the treaty. The leaders of Protestant churches saw the easy victory at Manila as a divine summons to missionary work in the Philippines.
  4. No one could foresee how the Polk administration would receive a treaty negotiated by an unofficial agent; nor could they know the twists and turns of the Mexican political scene for the next few months.
  5. If the United States did not get what they wanted, they would insist by force, not by allowing the inferior nation in their eyes to make suggestions that regard their country and dignity. Finally, on 2 February 1 , the Mexican representatives met Trist in the Villa of Guadalupe Hidalgo, across from the shrine of the patron saint of Mexico.

In a separate note, however, he made it clear that nothing less than independence for Cuba would be acceptable. The Spanish government was caught upon the horns of a cruel dilemma. It had not readied its army or navy for war with the United States, nor had it warned the Spanish public of the necessity of relinquishing Cuba. War meant certain disaster. The surrender of Cuba might mean the overthrow of the government or even the monarchy. Spain clutched at the only straws in sight.

On the one hand, it sought support from the principal European governments. Aside from the British, these governments were sympathetic to Spain but were unwilling to give it more than weak verbal support. McKinley assured them that if intervention came, it would be in the both mexican war and spanish american war were direct resu of humanity. Spain would end the reconcentration policy. Instead of accepting U. Spain at first stated that an armistice would be granted only on application from the insurgents but on April 9 announced one on its own initiative.

Spain, however, still refused to concede independence, which McKinley evidently now considered indispensable for restoration of peace and order in Cuba.

Yielding to the war party in Congress and to the logic of the position that he had consistently taken—the inability to find an acceptable solution in Cuba would result in U.

A fourth resolution, proposed by Sen. Teller of Coloradorenounced for the United States any idea of acquiring Cuba. The president beat back an attempt in the Senate to include recognition of the existing but insubstantial insurgent government. Recognition of that body, he believed, would hamper the United States both in the conduct of the war and in the postwar pacification, which he clearly foresaw as a responsibility of the United States.

Upon being informed of the signing of the resolutions, the Spanish government at once severed diplomatic relations and on April 24 declared war upon the United States. Congress declared war on April 25 and made the declaration retroactive to April Fighting in the Philippines and Cuba The war thus begun was pathetically one-sided.

Spain, as noted above, was in no sense prepared for war with a formidable power. Army was equally unprepared, but the outcome of the war was largely dependent on sea power, and in this element the United States completely outclassed its opponent. Spain had nothing to match the four new battleships—Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, and Oregon—which formed the backbone of the North Atlantic Squadron.

Thanks largely to the energy and enthusiasm of the assistant secretary of the navy, Theodore Rooseveltthe U. Officers and men were confident and aggressive, whereas their Spanish opponents knew they were doomed to defeat. Dewey, picked by Roosevelt for the command, led his squadron into the bay before dawn and in a leisurely morning engagement destroyed the anchored Spanish ships with naval gunfire.

American casualties amounted to only seven slightly wounded men. Dewey remained in control of the bay while a military force was sent out to assist him in taking possession of the city of Manila. By the end of July some 11, U. Wesley Merritt had arrived in the Philippinesand on August 13 they occupied Manila. Upon the declaration of war, a Spanish fleet of four armoured cruisers and three destroyerscommanded by Adm.

Sampson and the so-called Flying Squadron under Commodore Winfield Scott Schley thereupon blockaded the harbour entrance. Their hold was so precarious and both mexican war and spanish american war were direct resu incidence of malaria and other diseases was so widespread that their commander, Maj.

  • Armistice negotiations conducted in Washington ended with the signing of a protocol on August 12,
  • Interpretations of the provisions of the treaty have been important in disputes over international boundaries, water and mineral rights, and the civil and property rights of the descendants of the Mexicans in the ceded territories.

Shafterconsidered withdrawing to await reinforcements. This idea was abandoned on July 3 when Cervera, under orders from Havana, led his squadron out of Santiago harbour and tried to escape westward along the coast.

Two weeks later the city of Santiago surrendered to Shafter.

  1. Spain would end the reconcentration policy. The most disrespect followed the signing of the Treaty of Paris when Spain lost all of its overseas possessions.
  2. The superior powers, such as the United States, are always looking to profit themselves. Army was equally unprepared, but the outcome of the war was largely dependent on sea power, and in this element the United States completely outclassed its opponent.
  3. The Mexican government, headed by the ad interim Mexican president Manuel de la Pena y Pena, quickly agreed to the boundary issues.
  4. Beyond territorial gains and losses, the treaty has been important in shaping the international and domestic histories of both Mexico and the United States. During the Mexican war and the Spanish-American War, the dominance and ethnocentric ideals that America held flourished in many un-called-for, disrespectful disputes.

The peace process The war was now over for all practical purposes, and on July 18 the Spanish government requested the good offices of France in arranging a termination of hostilities. Before the fighting ended, however, another American expeditionary force, commanded by Maj.

Miles, occupied Puerto Rico.

Mexican War and the Spanish American War Essay

Armistice negotiations conducted in Washington ended with the signing of a protocol on August 12, Besides ending hostilities, this agreement pledged Spain to surrender all authority over Cuba and to cede Puerto Rico and an unnamed island in the Ladrones Mariana Islands to the United States.

In the PhilippinesSpain consented that the United States should occupy the city and harbour of Manila until the conclusion of a peace treaty that would determine the final disposition of the islands.

Peace commissioners were to meet in Paris not later than October 1. The great question now confronting McKinley and his advisers was what, if anything, to demand of Spain in the Philippines. It seems certain that McKinley, in proposing intervention in Cuba, had had no thought of acquiring an empire on the other side of the globe. Nor is there any reason to suppose that many members of Congress or of the public both mexican war and spanish american war were direct resu large had contemplated such an outcome of the war.

Roosevelt and his friend Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge were devotees of the sea power doctrines of Capt. Recent European aggressions in China seemed, to many businessmen, to threaten the U. The leaders of Protestant churches saw the easy victory at Manila as a divine summons to missionary work in the Philippines. The British and Japanese governments, furthermore, let it be known that they would be pleased to see the United States keep the islands.

There were difficulties about any other course. Restoration of Spanish rule promised only chaos similar to that from which Cuba had just been rescued. Furthermore, the Filipino people were not believed to have the education, training, or experience needed for successful self-government.

This belief persisted despite the fact that a group headed by Emilio Aguinaldo had declared the Philippines a provisional republic in Juneand it ignored the reality on the ground: Brown Brothers Swayed by these varied considerations and by his appraisal of popular sentiment, McKinley decided, after long deliberation, that the United States must take possession of the roughly 7, islands and 7, inhabitants of the Philippines.

The Treaty of Parissigned December 10,conformed to these terms. The treaty was strongly opposed in the U. Senate but was approved on February 6,by a single vote. Treaty of ParisSigning of the Treaty of Paris, For the next three years the Filipinos carried on a guerrilla warfare campaign against U.

By the time fighting ended, some 20, Filipino troops andcivilians were dead. An estimated 4, Americans perished, the overwhelming majority as a result of disease.

Manila, PhilippinesMap of Manila and its environs, c.