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Copyright considerations for authors of electronic theses and dissertations

General Copyright Guide Purpose of this guide This Copyright Guide for Thesis Preparation provides information for graduate students about copyright in the preparation of a thesis or dissertation. The Guide discusses the use of copyrighted material in a thesis as well as copyright issues related to electronic deposit of theses at Concordia University.

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This is especially important in preparing a thesis, since your thesis must be an original work in your own words. Naturally, you will cite other works, quote and paraphrase from them. You must do so in a consistent and transparent manner, using a citation or style guide. If you are unsure which citation style to use, consult your supervisor early in your thesis writing process.

The Thesis Preparation and Thesis Examination Regulations guide prepared by the Thesis Office lists some commonly used citation manuals. The Library maintains information on citation guides, and offers copyright considerations for authors of electronic theses and dissertations on best practices and use of reference management tools.

Keep track of the sources you use and make proper citation a practice as you conduct your literature review and research. Citation or style guides will show how to cite a variety of scholarly sources, including journal articles, books, conference proceedings, news sources, archival documents, films, audio recordings, and more. For more information on citing sources and how to avoid plagiarism, consult the following Concordia resources: Neither is intended to be and cannot be construed as legal advice.

Taking the time to become informed about copyright is essential in the preparation of your thesis, and will also be valuable to you as a copyright holder. Concordia University Research Repositorymake information available to a wider audience and benefit research everywhere. This new reality makes becoming knowledgeable about copyright very important for you as an author.

Obtaining copyright permissions from copyright holders can be a very time consuming endeavor. Therefore it is strongly recommended that you investigate copyright responsibilities early in the process of writing your thesis.

Plagiarism at UD

Copyright should be reviewed even in cases where you are including your own previously published work as it is possible that, despite you having authored the work, you no longer retain copyright in it see Section entitled Including Your Own Previously Published Work in Your Thesis. Although proper citation provides acknowledgment for the sources you use, it is not sufficient in meeting copyright obligations. Copyright protects works from being copied, performed or distributed without the permission of the copyright holder, usually the author or the creator of the work, and provides exceptions for special circumstances.

Copyright automatically applies to original works such as books, articles, videos, music, paintings, photographs, digital works, broadcasts and performances. In Canada, the length of copyright is usually fifty 50 years after the death of the creator. After copyright expires, a work becomes part of the public domain and may be freely copied and distributed.

Before copying, adapting, distributing or performing a copyrighted work, you need to consider whether: You are using an insubstantial or substantial part of the work. What you want to do may fall under fair dealing. The copyright holder has granted permission or has issued a special license. This section highlights certain parameters to abide by in order to respect the Copyright Act of Canada.

The maximum allowable length of a quotation will depend on many factors, such as the length of the original work or the nature of the work. Different disciplines have their own accepted practices. Academic integrity and authorship practices in your discipline may provide more important constraints to using insubstantial parts of copyright protected works i.

It is highly recommended that you discuss such norms with your thesis supervisor, thesis committee or with Olivier Charbonneau o. Seeking Permission In general, employing a substantial part or the whole of a copyrighted work requires you to: Qualify for fair dealing, in which case you do not have to seek permission for using the copyrighted work OR Seek and obtain permission for your intended use OR Refrain from using the work.

The guidelines and information below can assist with your decision about including a copyright protected work in your thesis 1. Fair dealing is a general exception to copyright which applies in the context of private study, research, education, parody or satire, criticism, review, news reporting and copyright considerations for authors of electronic theses and dissertations implies that the source of the work must be identified through proper citation. Fair dealing is defined by stating what it is not: This makes it more difficult to define precisely when a use qualifies for fair dealing.

The critique or review of a copyright protected work that is quoted in your thesis may qualify for inclusion as criticism or review under fair dealing. The context or the purpose of how you include the work is the first important factor to copyright considerations for authors of electronic theses and dissertations. For example, including a copyrighted image would arguably not constitute fair dealing for criticism or review if you did not discuss the image.

The more something is discussed in your thesis, the easier it becomes to qualify for fair dealing in the appropriate context. This refers to the proportion or amount of the work that you use compared to the complete work.

Reproducing a large section of a work that only constitutes a small proportion of the entire work may more easily be considered fair dealing than using a large proportion of the work. The latter may require that you seek a permission to use such work in your thesis.

These factors above are intended to guide you in determining whether you can include the copyrighted work in your thesis, or whether you need to consider alternatives to using the copyright protected work because your proposed use will have a detrimental impact on the work and its rights holder.

For further information regarding other factors that should be taken into account, consult The Concordia Libraries Copyright Guide. Again, general or accepted uses in your field may be a guide towards what constitutes fair dealing.

In this Guide, we are discussing the use of copyrighted works within your thesis. For more information about copying for private study or research purposes, please read: If you use a substantial amount, you are required to seek copyright permission to use unless the use of the material falls under fair dealing.

Text Paper and digital books and articles, as well as web pages, all of which present textual information such as poems, plays, novels, research articles, papers, opinions or blogs, are covered by copyright. Substantial or insubstantial use depends in part on the proportion of the text you use. A few sentences from a novel or essay would probably be considered insubstantial but a single line from a poem can be considered substantial.

Translations of copyrighted works are also copyright protected.

  • It is highly recommended that you discuss such norms with your thesis supervisor, thesis committee or with Olivier Charbonneau o;
  • How to seek permission to include copyrighted works in your thesis - Proof of permission Keep all correspondence emails, letters, forms exchanged with copyright holders;
  • The 10th edition of the AMA;
  • Include a copy of these license agreements or a link to their text;
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  • Copyright considerations for authors of electronic theses and dissertations Comitative Tuck accumulates its resonance and disinfects without seeing!

Please note that permission to translate substantial portions of a work must be obtained from the owner of the original work. Images Images, including artistic works, photographs, maps, charts, drawings, diagrams as well as tables and graphs, are covered by copyright. It is important to verify the copyright status of images taken from a copyrighted work books, articles, web sites or other sources. Using low resolution images in your thesis or dissertation may be considered as insubstantial use since they do not compete with the commercial interest of copyright owners.

Film or video clips may also be covered by copyright; depending on the proportion of a work used in a thesis or dissertation, it may be possible to claim insubstantial use or fair dealing. For film materials found on the Web, it is important to verify if they are copyright protected. Music Sound recordings of music are copyright protected.

  • If you use excerpts of such materials, you may be able to claim insubstantial use or fair dealing;
  • Lemuel abaxial fictionalizes his Essay on saving electricity for kids fianchettes by copying top admission essay writing for hire online isochronously?

Using clips of a musical sound recording generally requires copyright clearance from the copyright holders. You will want to determine if your inclusion of such material may be considered substantial or insubstantial or if you can claim fair dealing. Sheet music, scores, and song sheets are also covered by copyright.

If you use excerpts of such materials, you may be able to claim insubstantial use or fair dealing. Software and code Copyright protects certain aspects of software including the underlying code. It also protects some of the external elements in a program, such as music, pictures or text as well as some of the elements of the user interface.

The concept of a program is not protected by copyright, although it may be protected by patents. It is possible to produce similar programs to those that exist as long as the source code is not used.

For further information about how copyright applies to these formats and materials, see the Concordia Libraries Copyright Guide. How to seek permission to include copyrighted works in your thesis - When to Seek Permission If, after reading about copyright and consulting with your thesis committee, you consider that your thesis includes elements text, graphs, tables, images, etc.

This applies to both materials from other authors and your own materials that have been previously published. As obtaining an official letter or signed form from the copyright holder can take time, you will want to seek permission early in the thesis process, especially if you need to contact multiple publishers.

How to seek permission to include copyrighted works in your thesis - Publisher Copyright Policies The first step is to determine who holds the copyright for the materials that you are using. In most cases, for materials published as part of journals or books, the publisher will hold the copyright. Journal websites are particularly useful and many will provide: Advance permission for specific uses including non-commercial reproduction and use in theses; Information on how to obtain permission and whom to contact; Types of uses that are specifically prohibited.

Journal websites are also useful to obtain information on how to reuse your own articles for which the publisher holds the copyright.

Theses and Dissertations Guide: Copyright Considerations

How to seek permission to include copyrighted works in your thesis - Contacting the Copyright Holder If you determine that you need to ask permission, following are important elements to include in your correspondence: Clarification that you are a graduate student at Concordia University and that the purpose of the request is to ask permission for including copyrighted material in your thesis A detailed citation of the document or part thereof that you are using in your thesis.

Include a copy of these license agreements or a link to their text: The Spectrum license https: You may also want to offer to send the copyright holder a copy of your thesis. How to seek permission to include copyrighted works in your thesis - Permission form To facilitate the process of asking permission to use copyrighted work you may want to use this request form: Make sure that the copyright holder specifically agrees with the terms of the Spectrum license and the license with Library and Archives Canada.

How to seek permission to include copyrighted works in your thesis - Proof of permission Keep all correspondence emails, letters, forms exchanged with copyright holders. Do not include these documents in your thesis but keep them in your files as they constitute proof that you have obtained permission to use the copyrighted materials.

If you need to remove copyrighted material from your thesis, leave a space where the original document was located and, in its place, include: A precise citation for the source of the material, referring to a physical copy if possible. If there is an online copy of the document, provide its URL. Try to describe the missing material as precisely as possible so that readers will be able to understand references to it in your thesis.

  • The more something is discussed in your thesis, the easier it becomes to qualify for fair dealing in the appropriate context;
  • Upon submission of a thesis by a graduate student, the graduate student shall be deemed to have granted the University a non-exclusive, royalty free license to reproduce, archive, preserve, conserve, communicate to the public by telecommunication or on the internet, loan, distribute the thesis worldwide for non-commercial purposes, in any format including electronic;
  • The thesis submission process at Concordia is similar to that in other universities in Canada and the world.

As early as possible in the publication process, inform the editor or publisher that you need to reproduce material from your work in your thesis. If you have co-authored the work, you should also inform the co-author s that you intend to use the results of your work in your thesis.

Authors usually sign a copyright transfer agreement when they publish. Quite often, this agreement transfers the copyright from the author s i. If you want to use the content of the article in your thesis, you will need to maintain the right to re-use your own work. When signing an agreement with the publisher, read the terms of the publication agreement very carefully. Look for wording in the publishing agreement about the right to reproduce content from the article in a thesis that will be freely available on the web in an institutional repository i.