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Critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl

Criticisms of globalization Supporters believe that by the late 20th century those they characterized as "ruling elites" sought to harness the expansion of world markets for their own interests; this combination of the Bretton Woods institutions, states, and multinational corporations has been called " globalization " or "globalization from above.

Corporations that use these institutions to support their own corporate and financial interests, can exercise privileges that individuals and small businesses cannot, [10] including the ability to: The movement aims for an end to the legal status of " corporate personhood " and the dissolution of free market fundamentalism and the radical economic privatization measures of the World Bankthe IMF, and the World Trade Organization.

Protest against the G8-meeting in Heiligendamm2007. Activists are especially opposed to the various abuses which they think are perpetuated by globalization and the international institutions that, they say, promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards or environmental protection. In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, adherents of the movement claim that free trade without measures to protect the environment and the health and wellbeing of workers will merely increase the power of industrialized nations often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South".

Proponents of this line of thought refer to the process as polarization and argue that current neo-liberal economic policies have given wealthier states an advantage over developing nations, enabling their exploitation and leading to a widening of the global wealth gap. These activists also point out that heavy subsidization of developed nations' agriculture and the aggressive use of export subsidies by some developed nations to make their agricultural products more attractive on the international market are major causes of declines in the agricultural sectors of many developing nations.

Global opposition to neoliberalism[ edit ] Through the Interneta critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl began to develop in opposition to the doctrines of neoliberalism which were widely manifested in the 1990s when the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD proposed liberalization of cross-border investment and trade restrictions through its Multilateral Agreement on Investment MAI.

  • Key grassroots organizations[ edit ];
  • Noam Chomsky stated in 2002 that The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental;
  • The first computers were lumbering away with piles of punched cards in the early postwar years, and telegrams provided the only rapid means of written communication;
  • The reduction in transport costs is also a key factor underlying the growth in trade;
  • Despite, or perhaps because of, the lack of formal coordinating bodies, the movement manages to successfully organize large protests on a global basis, using information technology to spread information and organize;
  • Many nationalist movements, such as the French National Front , Austrian Freedom Party , the Italian Lega Nord , [21] the Greek Golden Dawn [22] or the National Democratic Party of Germany [23] are opposed to globalization, but argue that the alternative to globalization is the protection of the nation-state.

This treaty was prematurely exposed to public scrutiny and subsequently abandoned in November 1998 in the face of strenuous protest and criticism by national and international civil society representatives.

Neoliberal doctrine argued that untrammeled free trade and reduction of public-sector regulation would bring benefits to poor countries and to disadvantaged people in rich countries. Anti-globalization advocates urge that preservation of the natural environment, human rights especially workplace rights and conditions and democratic institutions are likely to be placed at undue risk by globalization unless mandatory standards are attached to liberalization.

Noam Chomsky stated in 2002 that The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental.

That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as "free investment agreements" Wall St. Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule.

No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration. Surely not the left and the workers movements, which were founded on the principle of international solidarity—that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of people, not private power systems. Anti-war movement By 2002, many parts of the movement showed wide opposition to the impending invasion of Iraq. Many participants were among those 11 million or more protesters that on the weekend of February 15, 2003, participated in global protests against the imminent Iraq war.

Other anti-war demonstrations were organized by the antiglobalization movement: Critics of this type of argument have tended to point out that this is just a standard criticism of representative democracy — a democratically elected government will not always act in the direction of greatest current public support — and that, therefore, there is no inconsistency in the leaders' positions given that these countries are parliamentary democracies.

Appropriateness of the term[ edit ] Many participants see Noam Chomsky's quotes above consider the term "anti-globalization" to be a misnomer. Hamed Hosseini an Australian sociologist and expert in global social movement studiesargues that the term anti-globalization can be ideal-typically used only to refer to only one ideological vision he detects alongside three other visions the anti-globalistthe alter-globalist and the alter-globalization.

According to him, while the first two visions the alter-globalism and the anti-globalism represent the reconstructed forms of old and new left ideologies, respectively, in the context of current globalization, only the third one has shown the capacity to respond more effectively to the intellectual requirements of today's global complexities.

Underlying this vision is a new conception of justice, coined accommodative justice by Hosseini, [19] a new approach towards cosmopolitanism transversal cosmopolitanisma new mode of activist knowledge accommodative consciousnessand a new format of solidarity, interactive solidarity. Some activists, notably David Graebersee the movement as opposed instead to neoliberalism or " corporate globalization ".

Globalization: The Concept, Causes, and Consequences

He argues that the term "anti-globalization" is a term coined by the media, and that radical activists are actually more in favor of globalization, in the sense of "effacement of borders and the free movement of people, possessions and ideas" than are the IMF or WTO. He also notes that activists use the terms "globalization movement" and "anti-globalization movement" interchangeably, indicating the confusion of the terminology.

The term "alter-globalization" has been used to make this distinction clear. While the term "anti-globalization" arose critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl the movement's opposition to free-trade agreements which have often been considered part of something called " globalization "various participants contend they are opposed to only certain aspects of globalization and instead describe themselves, at least in French-speaking organizations, as " anti-capitalist ", "anti- plutocracy ," or "anti- corporate.

The term "anti-globalization" does not distinguish the international leftist anti-globalization position from a strictly nationalist anti-globalization position. Many nationalist movements, such as the French National FrontAustrian Freedom Partythe Italian Lega Nord[21] the Greek Golden Dawn [22] or the National Democratic Party of Germany [23] are opposed to globalization, but argue that the alternative to globalization is the protection of the nation-state.

Other groups, influenced by the Third Positionare also classifiable as anti-globalization. In response, the nationalist movements against globalization, argue that the leftist anti-globalization position is actually a support to alter-globalization.

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La croissance est une folie "Growth is madness". Several influential critical works have inspired the anti-globalization movement. No Logothe book by the Canadian journalist Naomi Klein who criticized the production practices of multinational corporations and the omnipresence of brand-driven marketing in popular culturehas become "manifesto" [24] of the movement, presenting in a simple way themes more accurately developed in other works.

In India some intellectual references of the movement can be found in the works of Vandana Shivaan ecologist and feminist, who in her book Biopiracy documents the way that the natural capital of indigenous peoples and ecoregions is converted into forms of intellectual capitalwhich are then recognized as exclusive commercial property without sharing the private utility thus derived.

The writer Arundhati Roy is famous for her anti-nuclear position and her activism against India's massive hydroelectric dam project, sponsored by the World Bank.

  • Corporations that use these institutions to support their own corporate and financial interests, can exercise privileges that individuals and small businesses cannot, [10] including the ability to;
  • Of course, one can argue that this increased vulnerability to external shocks has to be weighed against a decreased vulnerability to internal shocks;
  • The first computers were lumbering away with piles of punched cards in the early postwar years, and telegrams provided the only rapid means of written communication;
  • This is designed, with varying success, to protect the risk-averse from the physical and legal dangers posed by confrontations with law enforcement;
  • Although over the past years more emphasis has been given to the construction of grassroots alternatives to capitalist globalization, the movement's largest and most visible mode of organizing remains mass decentralized campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience.

In France the well-known monthly paper Le Monde Diplomatique has advocated the antiglobalization cause and an editorial of its director Ignacio Ramonet brought about the foundation of the association ATTAC. Susan George of the Transnational Institute has also been a long-term influence on the movement, as the writer of books since 1986 on hunger, debt, international financial institutions and capitalism.

The works of Jean ZieglerChristopher Chase-Dunnand Immanuel Wallerstein have detailed underdevelopment and dependence in a world ruled by the capitalist system. Pacifist and anti-imperialist traditions have strongly influenced the movement.

Although they may not recognize themselves as antiglobalists and are pro-capitalism, some economists who don't share the neoliberal approach of international economic institutions have strongly influenced the movement. Amartya Sen 's Development as Freedom Nobel Prize in Economics1999argues that third world development must be understood as the expansion of human capability, not simply the increase in national income per capita, and thus requires policies attuned to health and education, not simply GDP.

James Tobin 's winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics proposal for a tax on financial transactions called, after him, the Tobin tax has become part of the agenda of the movement. Also, George SorosJoseph E. Stiglitz another Economic Sciences Nobel prize winner, formerly of the World Bank, author of Globalization and Its Discontents and David Korten have made arguments for drastically improving transparencyfor debt reliefland reformand restructuring corporate accountability critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl.

Anti-globalization movement

Korten and Stiglitz's contribution to the movement include involvement in direct actions and street protest. In some Roman Catholic countries such as Italy there have been religious influences, especially from missionaries who have spent a long time in the Third World the most famous being Alex Zanotelli.

Internet sources and free-information websites, such as Indymediaare a means of diffusion of the movement's ideas. The vast array of material on spiritual movements, anarchismlibertarian socialism and the Green Movement that is now available on the Internet has been perhaps more influential than any printed book. Anti-globalization protests in Edinburgh during the start of the 31st G8 summit.

Although over the past years more emphasis has been given to the construction of grassroots alternatives to capitalist globalization, the movement's largest and most visible mode of organizing remains mass decentralized campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience.

This mode of organizing, sometimes under the banner of the Peoples' Global Action network, tries to tie the many disparate causes together into one global struggle.

In many ways the process of organizing matters overall can be more important to activists than the avowed goals or achievements of any component of the movement. At corporate summits, the stated goal of most demonstrations is to stop the proceedings. Although the demonstrations rarely succeed in more than delaying or inconveniencing the actual summits, this motivates the mobilizations and gives them a visible, short-term purpose.

This form of publicity is expensive in police time and the public purse. Rioting has occurred at some protests, for instance in Genoa, Seattle and London - and extensive damage was done to the area, especially targeting corporations, including McDonald's and Starbucks restaurants. Despite, or perhaps because of, the lack of formal coordinating bodies, the movement manages to successfully organize large protests on a global basis, using information technology to spread information and organize.

Protesters organize themselves into " affinity groups ," typically non-hierarchical groups of critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl who live close together and share a common political goal. Affinity groups will then send representatives to planning meetings.

However, because these groups can be infiltrated by law enforcement intelligence, important plans of the protests are often not made until the last minute. One common tactic of the protests is to split up based on willingness to break the law. This is designed, with varying success, critically discuss concept globalisation meant cultural gl protect the risk-averse from the physical and legal dangers posed by confrontations with law enforcement.

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Many protesters take training in first aid and act as medics to other injured protesters. In the USA, some organizations like the National Lawyer's Guild and, to a lesser extent, the American Civil Liberties Unionprovide legal witnesses in case of law enforcement confrontation. Key grassroots organizations[ edit ].